Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 75, Issue 23, pp 15849–15880 | Cite as

Modelling attacks on self-authentication watermarking



Although the Self-Authentication Watermarking (SAW) schemes are promising to tackle the multimedia information assurance problem, their unknown security level seems to impair their potential. In this paper, we identify three new counterfeiting attacks on those schemes and present their countermeasure. We develop, analyse, and validate the models of the identified attacks followed by the development of a new SAW model to resist those attacks. The identified attack models generalize three main security levels that capture all the possible counterfeiting instances. We focus on the block-wise dependent fragile watermarking schemes, and their general weaknesses. Experimental results successfully demonstrate the practicality and consequences of the identified attacks in exploiting those weaknesses to maliciously and undetectably alter valid watermarked images. To resist the identified attacks, we further determine a set of general requirements for SAW schemes and illustrate their attainment in developing an extended SAW model. While the identified attack models can be used as a means to systematically examine the security levels of similar SAW schemes, the extended SAW model may lead to developing their more secure variants. Our study has also revealed some open challenges in the development and formal analysis of SAW schemes.


Counterfeiting attack Fragile watermarking Information assurance Multimedia security Self-authentication 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)Khulna University of Engineering and Technology (KUET)KhulnaBangladesh
  2. 2.School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS)Queensland University of Technology (QUT)BrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.Department of TelematicsNorwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)TrondheimNorway
  4. 4.School of EECSQUTBrisbaneAustralia

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