Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 75, Issue 14, pp 8319–8345 | Cite as

An adaptive multi bit-plane image steganography using block data-hiding

  • Tuan Duc NguyenEmail author
  • Somjit Arch-int
  • Ngamnij Arch-int


Embedding a secret message into the pixels of a cover image yields a visual distortion if these pixels belong to smooth regions. Thus, this prompted the development of some edge-based approaches in which only the edge pixels are used to hide secret bits. As a result, the visual quality of stego images is improved. However, the capacity is limited due to some unused regions in cover images. In this paper, an adaptive multi bit-planes image steganography using block data-hiding (MPBDH) is proposed. This method employs more than one bit-plane and applies an adaptive complexity threshold computation to select the complex regions of a cover image used in data hiding. Consequently, the embedding capacity and security performance are significantly improved in comparison with previous approaches based on pixel and block complexity. The results, which are obtained from experiments performed on 10,000 natural gray-images, indicate that the embedding capacity and security introduced in the proposed approach overcome the problems of previous approaches. The proposed approach is hence suitable for secure communications.


Muli bit-plane Adaptive Block data-hiding Steganography 



We gratefully acknowledge Department of Computer Science for financial support and Khon Kaen University for their assistance.


  1. 1.
    (1997) SIPI Image Database. Accessed 24 Jan 2015
  2. 2.
    Battisti F, Cancellaro M, Boato G et al (2009) Joint watermarking and encryption of color images in the fibonacci-haar domain. EURASIP J Adv Signal Process 2009:938515. doi: 10.1155/2009/938515 CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cachin C (1998) An information-theoretic model for steganography. inf. hiding. Springer, Berlin, pp 306–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chang K-C, Huang PS, Te-Ming Tu, Chien-Ping Chang (2007) Adaptive image steganographic scheme based on Tri-way Pixel-Value Differencing. IEEE, 1165–1170Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Daemen J, Rijmen V (2002) The design of Rijndael AES - the advanced encryption standard. Springer, BerlinzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fridrich J, Goljan M, Du R (2001) Reliable detection of LSB steganography in color and grayscale images. ACM Press, 27Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hashemi Pour A (2012) A new steganography method based on the complex pixels. J Inf Secur 03:202–208. doi: 10.4236/jis.2012.33025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hirohisa H (2002) A data embedding method using BPCS principle with new complexity measures. Proc Pac. Rim Workshop Digit. Steganography. 30–47Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hong W (2012) Human visual system based data embedding method using quadtree partitioning. Signal Process Image Commun 27:1123–1133. doi: 10.1016/j.image.2012.09.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jung K-H, Yoo K-Y (2014) Data hiding using edge detector for scalable images. Multimed Tools Appl 71:1455–1468. doi: 10.1007/s11042-012-1293-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kawaguchi E, Eason RO (1998) Principle and applications of BPCS-steganographyGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ker AD (2005) Steganalysis of LSB matching in grayscale images. IEEE Signal Process Lett 441–444. doi: 10.1109/LSP.2005.847889
  13. 13.
    Kodovsky J, Fridrich J, Holub V (2012) Ensemble classifiers for steganalysis of digital media. IEEE Trans Inf Forens Secur 7:432–444. doi: 10.1109/TIFS.2011.2175919 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Luo W, Huang F, Huang J (2010) Edge adaptive image steganography based on lsb matching revisited. IEEE Trans Inf Forens Secur 5:201–214. doi: 10.1109/TIFS.2010.2041812 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mielikainen J (2006) LSB matching revisited. IEEE Signal Process Lett 13:285–287. doi: 10.1109/LSP.2006.870357 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Muñoz A (2007) StegSecret. A simple steganalysis tool. Accessed 24 Jan 2015
  17. 17.
    Nguyen TD, Arch-int S, Arch-int N (2014) A novel secure block data-hiding algorithm using cellular automata to enhance the performance of JPEG steganography. Multimed Tools Appl. doi: 10.1007/s11042-014-1877-6 zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pevny T, Bas P, Fridrich J (2010) Steganalysis by subtractive pixel adjacency matrix. IEEE Trans Inf Forens Secur 5:215–224. doi: 10.1109/TIFS.2010.2045842 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Qi H, Zheng D, Zhao J (2008) Human visual system based adaptive digital image watermarking. Signal Process 88:174–188. doi: 10.1016/j.sigpro.2007.07.020 CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rivest RL, Shamir A, Adleman LM (1983) Cryptographic communications system and method. Google PatentsGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rose NJ (2001) Hilbert-type space-filling curvesGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sabeti V, Samavi S, Shirani S (2013) An adaptive LSB matching steganography based on octonary complexity measure. Multimed Tools Appl 64:777–793. doi: 10.1007/s11042-011-0975-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sur A, Ramanathan V, Mukherjee J (2014) Pixel rearrangement based statistical restoration scheme reducing embedding noise. Multimed Tools Appl 68:805–825. doi: 10.1007/s11042-012-1078-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tomáš Pevný, Tomáš Filler, Patrick Bas (2013) Break Our Steganography System. s. Accessed 24 Jan 2015Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Voloshynovskiy S, Herrigel A, Baumgaertner N, Pun T (2000) A Stochastic Approach to Content Adaptive Digital Image Watermarking. In: Pfitzmann A (ed) Inf. Hiding. Springer, Berlin, pp 211–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang Z, Bovik AC, Sheikh HR, Simoncelli EP (2004) Image quality assessment: from error measurement to structural similarity. IEEE Trans Image Process 13:600–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Westfeld A, Pfitzmann A (2000) Attacks on Steganographic Systems. In: Pfitzmann A (ed) Inf. Hiding. Springer, Berlin, pp 61–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tuan Duc Nguyen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Somjit Arch-int
    • 1
  • Ngamnij Arch-int
    • 1
  1. 1.Khon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand

Personalised recommendations