Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 75, Issue 14, pp 8165–8194

An efficient fragile watermarking scheme with multilevel tamper detection and recovery based on dynamic domain selection



Self-recoverable fragile watermarking is meant for accurate tamper localization as well as image recovery with superior visual quality. However, most of the existing state of art approaches perform authentication and recovery on block basis owing to which the entire block is categorized as tampered in case of alteration of one or more pixels of it. This, results in staircase formation of tamper detected regions, hence lacking in accuracy. Furthermore, the visual quality of the recovered image also deteriorates as an approximate value is assigned to all the block pixels corresponding to the altered region. The proposed watermarking scheme performs both authentication and recovery pixelwise. The authentication of each pixel is done via multi level tamper detection(MLTD) through three authentication bits based on value, location and neighbourhood information. The domain for image recovery is chosen dynamically based on the content of the block, may it be in spatial domain for smooth blocks or frequency domain for the rough ones. This provides high accuracy in recovery. As the embedding of recovery information is done in the frequency domain, the imperceptibility of the watermarked image scheme remains high. Also, embedding of authentication information in the spatial domain maintains its fragile nature. Even for higher tampering ratios, the lost content is rebuilt with high peak signal to noise ratio(PSNR) of the recovered image. The probabilities of false rejection and false acceptance head towards the ideal value for most of the empirical analysis. Comparative study via metric evaluation of probability of false rejection (PFR), probability of false acceptance (PFA) and PSNR of recovered image for different standard test cover images demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed scheme over other existing state of art approaches. Further, the security of the proposed scheme remains high due to usage of multi-layered secret keys and chaos based random mapping handling worst tamper scenarios.


Self-recoverable fragile watermarking Pixelwise authentication Multi Level Tamper Detection (MLTD) Probability of False Rejection (PFR) Probability of False Acceptance (PFA) Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) Chaos 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Motilal Nehru National Institute of TechnologyAllahabadIndia

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