Advertisement

Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 75, Issue 19, pp 11815–11829 | Cite as

Positioning corners of human mouth based on local gradient operator

  • Yulin Wang
  • Wenjia Ding
  • Yixin Chen
Article

Abstract

Face recognition has widespread applications in monitoring system, public security and home entertainment etc.. However, in practical application, there are many problems needed to be solved in face recognition technology. This paper presents a method to detect and locate accurately facial feature points based on local gradient operator. With Adaboost algorithm, we first detect roughly the mouth area in the face image, and then extract contours of mouth using local gradient operator. Finally, we use Ostu threshold to extract the binary contour around mouth corners according to the precise location of chain code tracing. Experimental results show that local gradient operator can detect and locate rapidly and accurately human mouth, and it is relatively robust against change of facial expressions as well as noise, which helps to improve face recognition rate.

Keywords

Face recognition Feature points positioning Local gradient operator Chain code tracing 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work is sponsored by Applied Basic Research Programs of Wuhan City (Grant No. 2014060101010029), and Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province of China (Grant No. 2011CDB449).

References

  1. 1.
    Bichsel M (1991) Strategies of robust object recognition for the automatic identification of human faces [Dissertation], Zurich: ETH ZurichGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brunelli R, Poggio T (1993) Face recognition: features versus templates. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 15(10):1042–1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cootes TF, Edwards GJ, Taylor CJ (2001) Active appearance models. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 23(6):681–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cristinacce D, Cootes T (2007) Boosted regression active shape models. British Machine Vision Conference, LondonCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dihua LI, Podolak LT, Lee SW (2002) Facial component extraction and face recognition with support vector machines. In Proceedings of 2th IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, Washington DC, USA. New York: IEEE Press, 76–81Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Feris RS, Gemmell J, Toyama K, Kruger V (2002) Hierarchical wavelet networks for facial feature localization. In: Proceedings of Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, 118–123Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fu HC, Lai PS, Lou RS, Pao H-T (2000) Face detection and eye localization by neural network based color segmentation. In: Proceedings of Neural Networks for Signal Processing. 2: 507–516Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Heisele B, Ho P, Poggio T (2001) Face recognition with support vector machines: global versus component-based approach. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Vision. 2:688–694Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hsu R-L, Abdel-Mottaleb M, Jain AK (2002) Face detection in color images. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 24(5):696–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kafai M, Le A, Bhanu B (2014) Reference face graph for face recognition. IEEE Trans Inf Forens Secur 9(12):2132–2143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kanade T (1973) Picture processing system by computer complex and recognition of human faces. Kyoto University, Department of Information ScienceGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kin CY, Cipolla R (1996) A probabilistic framework for perceptual grouping of features for human face detection. In: Proceedings of Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition 16–21Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Krüger V, Sommer G (2002) Wavelet networks for face processing. J Opt Soc AmGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kumar SA, Thyaghrajan KK (2013) Facial expression recognition with auto-illumination correction, In: Processing of 2013 International Conference on Green Computing, Communication and Conservation of Energy 1(5):843–846Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Marcel S (2006) http://www.idiap.ch/resources/faceverif/index.php, Databases of features for face verification
  16. 16.
    Nguyen MH, Perez J, De La Torre F (2008) Facial feature detection with optimal pixel reduction SVM. In: Proceedings of 8th IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, New York: IEEE Press, 376–381Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Phung SL, Chai D, Bouzerdoum (2001) Skin color based face detection. In: Proceedings of Intelligent Information Systems Conference 171–176Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rein H, Lien M, Jain AK (2002) Face detection in color images. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 24(5):696–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Reinders MJT, Koch RWC, Gerbrands JJ (1996) Locating facial features in image sequences using neural networks. In: Proceedings of Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, 230–235Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Reisfeld D, Wolfson H, Yeshurun Y (1995) Context-free attentional operators: the generalized symmetry transform. Int J Comput Vis 14:119–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Reisfeld D, Yeshurun Y (1992) Robust detection of facial features by generalized symmetry. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 117–120Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Waite J, Vincent J (1992) A probabilistic framework for neural network facial feature location. Br Telecom Technol J 10(3):20–29Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wan KW, Lam KM, Ng KC (2005) An accurate active shape model for facial feature extraction. Pattern Recogn Lett 26(15):2409–2423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yan S, Liu C, Li SZ, Zhang H (2003) Face alignment using texture constrained active shape models. Image Vis Comput 21(1):69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yang G, Huang TS (1994) Human face detection in a complex background. Pattern Recogn 27:53–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhang LM, Lenders P (2000) Knowledge-based eye detection for human face recognition. In Proceedings of Knowledge-Based Intelligent Engineering Systems and Allied Technologies, 1:117–120Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhang W, Li X, Yao P, Li B, Zhuang Z (2008) A robust eye localization algorithm for face recognition. J Electron 25(3):337–342Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International School of SoftwareWuhan UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.School of ComputingNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations