Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 75, Issue 8, pp 4735–4751 | Cite as

Optimization-based audio watermarking with integrated quantization embedding

  • Shuo-Tsung Chen
  • Huang-Nan HuangEmail author


In general, the performance of a multimedia watermarking scheme is measured in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and robustness. However, there is a tradeoff between them which issues a challenge in the field of the watermarking. To overcome this problem, the embedding rules using amplitude quantization instead of single-coefficient quantization are first integrated as an embedding system that incorporates a state and the SNR is rewritten as a cost function which is a wavelet-based functional. Then, a nonlinear function connecting the cost function and the embedding system is derived. Finally, the Lagrange Principle is used to obtain the optimal solution which is an important formula for watermarking. Based on this formula, the synchronization code and watermark are embedded into the lowest frequency sub-band coefficients in the wavelet domain. In addition, the hidden information can be extracted without knowledge of the original audio. In the experiments, the performance of the proposed system is tested and the results verify the high SNR and strong robustness against multimedia signal processing or attacks.


Watermarking SNR Robustness Wavelet 



Taiwan Government (MOST 103-2115-M-029 -003).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sustainability Research CenterTunghai UniversityTaichungRepublic of China
  2. 2.Department of Applied MathematicsTunghai UniversityTaichungRepublic of China

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