Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 75, Issue 23, pp 15651–15663 | Cite as

Data hiding based on overlapped pixels using hamming code



Most data hiding schemes change the least significant bits to conceal messages in the cover images. Matrix encoding scheme is a well known scheme in this field. The matrix encoding proposed by Crandall can be used in steganographic data hiding methods. Hamming codes are kinds of cover codes. “Hamming + 1” proposed by Zhang et al. is an improved version of matrix encoding steganography. The embedding efficiency of “Hamming + 1” is very high for data hiding, but the embedding rate is low. Our proposed “Hamming + 3” scheme has a slightly reduced embedding efficiency, but improve the embedding rate and image quality. “Hamming + 3” is applied to overlapped blocks, which are composed of 2k+3 pixels, where k=3. We therefore propose verifying the embedding rate during the embedding and extracting phases. Experimental results show that the reconstructed secret messages are the same as the original secret message, and the proposed scheme exhibits a good embedding rate compared to those of previous schemes.


Data Hiding Steganography Matrix Encoding Hamming codes 


  1. 1.
    Chang CC, Kieu TD, Chou YC (2008) A high payload steganographic scheme based on (7, 4) hamming code for digital images. Int Symp Elect Commerce Security:16–21Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chen CW, Tsai YR, Wang SJ (2012) Cost-saving key agreement via secret sharing in two-party communication systems. J Convergence 3(4):29–36Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Crandall R (1998) Some notes on steganography, Posted on steganography mailing list.
  4. 4.
    Fridrich J, Soukal D (2006) Matrix embedding for large payloads. IEEE Trans Inf Security Forensic 1(3):390–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gnanaraj JW, Ezra K, Rajsingh E (2013) Smart card based time efficient authentication scheme for global grid computing. Human-centric Comput Info Scie 3(16):1–16Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Juneja M, Sandhu PS (2013) A new approach for information security using an improved steganography technique. J Info Process Syst 9(3):405–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kim C, Shin DK, Shin D, Yang CN (2012) A (2, 2) secret sharing scheme based on hamming code and AMBTC. Lecture Notes in Comput Sci 7197:129–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kim C, Shin DK, Shin D (2011) Data hiding in a halftone image using hamming code (15, 11). Lecture Notes Comput Sci 6592:372–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kim HJ, Kim C, Choi Y, Wang S, Zhang X (2010) Improved modification direction methods. Comput & Math Appl 60(2):319–325MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mielikainen J (2006) LSB matching revisited. IEEE Signal Process Lett 13(5):285–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Panduranga HT, Naveen SK, Kumar HS, Kumar S (2013) Hardware software co-simulation of the multiple image encryption technique using the Xilinx system generator. J Info Process Syst 9(3):499–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Truong TT, Tran MT, Duong AD (2012) Improvement of the more efficient & secure ID-based remote mutual authentication with key agreement scheme for mobile devices on ECC. J Convergence 3(1):25–36Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tseng FH, Chou LD, Chao HC (2011) A survey of black hole attacks in wireless mobile ad hoc networks. Human-centric Comput Info Sci 1(4):1–16Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tseng Y-C, Chen Y-Y, Pan H-K (2002) A secure data hiding scheme for binary images. IEEE Trans Commun 50(8):1227–1231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Westfeld A (2001) F5: a steganographic algorithm. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop Information Hiding 2001, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2137(1):289–302MATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Willems F, Dijk M (2005) Capacity and codes for embedding information in gray-scale signals. IEEE Trans Inf Theory 51(3):1209–1214MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yang CN, Ye G-C, Kim C (2011) Data Hiding in Halftone Images by XOR Block-Wise Operation with Difference Minimization. KSII Trans Internet Info Syst 5(2):457–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang X, Wang S (2006) Efficient steganographic embedding by exploiting modification direction. IEEE Commun Lett 10(11):781–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Digital Media EngineeringAnyang UniversityAnyang-shiSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and Information EngineeringNational Dong Hwa UniversityHualienChina

Personalised recommendations