Data hiding based on overlapped pixels using hamming code
Most data hiding schemes change the least significant bits to conceal messages in the cover images. Matrix encoding scheme is a well known scheme in this field. The matrix encoding proposed by Crandall can be used in steganographic data hiding methods. Hamming codes are kinds of cover codes. “Hamming + 1” proposed by Zhang et al. is an improved version of matrix encoding steganography. The embedding efficiency of “Hamming + 1” is very high for data hiding, but the embedding rate is low. Our proposed “Hamming + 3” scheme has a slightly reduced embedding efficiency, but improve the embedding rate and image quality. “Hamming + 3” is applied to overlapped blocks, which are composed of 2k+3 pixels, where k=3. We therefore propose verifying the embedding rate during the embedding and extracting phases. Experimental results show that the reconstructed secret messages are the same as the original secret message, and the proposed scheme exhibits a good embedding rate compared to those of previous schemes.
KeywordsData Hiding Steganography Matrix Encoding Hamming codes
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