Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 75, Issue 2, pp 1027–1042 | Cite as

An image copyright protection scheme by encrypting secret data with the host image

  • Asha RaniEmail author
  • Balasubramanian Raman


In this paper, a zero-watermarking based copyright protection scheme is proposed. The secret watermark image is not embedded in the host image rather it is encrypted with the host image. The proposed scheme is making use of discrete cosine transform and singular value decomposition to extract robust features of the host image. Further the selected robust features are used to encrypt the secret image. The secret image is encrypted with the host image by generating two shares namely master share and ownership share. The master share is generated by differential classification of features extracted. The ownership share is generated with the help of master share and the secret image. The two shares separately don’t give any clue of the secret image but when stacked together the encrypted secret image is revealed. Experimental study is conducted to evaluate the robustness of the algorithm against various signal processing and geometrical attacks.


Digital watermarking Discrete cosine transform Singular-value decomposition Zero-watermarking Certified authority 



This research work is supported by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi under the grant number CSR-557-MTD.


  1. 1.
    Agarwal H, Balasubramanian R, Venkat I (2014) Blind reliable invisible watermarking method in wavelet domain for face image watermark. Multimedia Tools and ApplicationsGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bhatnagar G, Jonathan M, Wu Q, Balasubramanian R (2011) A new aspect in robust digital watermarking. Multimedia Tools and ApplicationsGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cao H, Xiang H, Li X, Liu M, Yi S, Wei F (2006) A zero-watermarking algorithm based on dwt and chaotic modulation. In: Independent Component Analyses, Wavelets, Unsupervised Smart Sensors, and Neural Networks IV, vol 6247, p 624716. doi: 10.1117/12.663927
  4. 4.
    Chang C, Chuan JC (2002) An image intellectual property protection scheme for gray-level images using visual secret sharing strategy. Pattern Recogn Lett 23:931–941CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen T, Horng G, Lee W (2005) A publicly verifiable copyright-proving scheme resistant to malicious attacks. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 52:327–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fu Z, Yu B (2013) Optimal pixel expansion of deterministic visual cryptography scheme. Multimedia Tools and ApplicationsGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gao G (2012) Composite chaos-based lossless image authentication and tamper localization. Multimedia Tools and ApplicationsGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guitart O, Kim HC, Delp EJ (2006) Watermark evaluation testbed. J Electron Imaging 14(4)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Horng S, Rosiyadi D, Fan P, Wang X, Khurram Khan M, Pan Y (2012) An efficient copyright protection scheme for e-government document images. IEEE Multimedia 19(3):62–73. doi: 10.1109/MMUL.2011.41 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hsu C, Hou Y (2005) Copyright protection scheme for digital images using visual cryptography and sampling methods. Opt Eng 44(7):077,003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Huynh-Thu Q, Ghanbari M (2008) Scope of validity of psnr in image/video quality assessment. Electron Lett 44(13)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hwang RJ (2000) A digital image copyright protection scheme based on visual cryptography. Tamkang J Sci Eng 3(2):97–106Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kutter M, Petitcolas FAP (1999) A fair benchmark for image watermarking systems. In: Proceedings of SPIE Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents, vol 3657, pp 226–239Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lin WH, Horng SJ, Kao TW, Chen RJ, Chen YH, Lee CL, Teranoe T (2009) Image copyright protection with forward error correction. Expert Syst Appl 36(9):11,888–11,894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lin WH, Horng SJ, Kao TW, Fan P, Lee CL, Pan Y (2008) An efficient watermarking method based on significant difference of wavelet coefficient quantization. IEEE Trans Multimed 10(5):746–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lin WH, Wang YR, Horng SJ (2009) A wavelet-tree-based watermarking method using distance vector of binary cluster. Expert Syst Appl 36(6):9869–9878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Matsumoto M, Nishimura T (1998) Mersenne twister: A 623 -dimensionally equidistributed uniform pseudorandomnumber generator. ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulations 8(1):3–30CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Naor M, Shamir A (1995) Visual cryptography. In: Proceedings of the Advances in Cryptology, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 950, pp 1–12. EUROCRYPT94, LNCS. Springer-VerlagGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rani A, Balasubramanian R, Kumar S (2013) A robust watermarking scheme exploiting balanced neural tree for rightful ownership protection. Multimedia Tools and Applications:1–24Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rawat S, Raman B (2012) A blind watermarking algorithm based on fractional fourier transform and visual cryptography. Signal Proc 92(6):1480–1491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Su Q, Niu Y, Zou H, Zhao Y, Yao T (2013) A blind double color image watermarking algorithm based on qr decomposition. Multimedia Tools and ApplicationsGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Swanson MD, Kobayashi M, Tewfik A (1998) Multimedia data embedding and watermarking technologies. In: Proceedings IEEE, vol 86(6), pp 1064—1087Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Voloshynovski S, Pereiera S, Pun T, Eggers J, Su J (2001) Attacks on digital watermarks: Classification, estimation-based attacks and benchmarks. IEEE Commun Mag 39:118–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang FH, Yen KK, Jain LC, Pan JS (2007) Multiuser-based shadow watermark extraction system. Inf Sci 177(12):25222532Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang M, Chen W (2009) A hybrid dwt-svd copyright protection scheme based on k-means clustering and visual cryptography. Computer Standards & Interfaces 31:757–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang MS, Chen WC (2006) Digital image copyright protection scheme based on visual cryptography and singular value decomposition. Opt Eng 46(6):067,006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang S, Lin Y (2004) Wavelet tree quantization for copyright protection watermarking. IEEE Trans Image Process 13:154–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yu L, Niu X, Sun S (2005) Print-and-scan model and the watermarking countermeasure. Image Vis Comput 23:807814Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zhou Y, Jin W (2011) A novel image zero-watermarking scheme based on dwt-svd. In: International Conference on Multimedia Technology (ICMT), pp. 2873–2876. IEEE. doi: 10.1109/ICMT.2011.6002066

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MathematicsIIT RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringIIT RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia

Personalised recommendations