Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 74, Issue 17, pp 6849–6869 | Cite as

Adaptive digital image watermarking for color images in frequency domain

  • G. S. KalraEmail author
  • R. Talwar
  • H. Sadawarti


We have presented an algorithm of digital image watermarking for color images which we implemented in frequency domain. Before inserting the watermark, we added the Hamming codes row wise as well column wise in the intensity component of color image. Two encryption techniques were implemented on the ECC inserted watermark for its security. The pixel position for inserting the watermark was calculated using starting row and column number for that 8 × 8 block. Pixel embedding strength is calculated using criteria that low frequency is robust in general signal processing attacks, thus choosing less value to be embedded and vice-versa. Results show that the watermarking algorithm is robust against common signal processing attacks. The algorithm is tested against multiple attacks also.


Watermarking Error correcting codes DCT DWT Frequency domain 


  1. 1.
    Abdul W, Carre P, Gaborit P (2009) List decoding of Reed Solomon codes for wavelet based colour image watermarking scheme. Image Process (ICIP). 16th IEEE International Conference on, vol., no., pp.3637–3640, 7–10 Nov. 2009Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akhaee MA, Sahraeian SME, Jin C (2011) Blind image watermarking using a sample projection approach. IEEE Trans Inf Forensics Secur 6(3):883–893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boneh D, Shaw J (1998) Collusion-secure fingerprinting for digital data. IEEE Trans Inf Theory 44(5):1897–1905zbMATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Business Software Alliances. Piracy study, Fourth Annual BSA And IDC Global Software, 2007.
  5. 5.
    Cika P (2009) Watermarking scheme based on discrete wavelet transform and error-correction codes. Syst Signals Image Process. IWSSIP 2009. 16th International Conference on, vol., no., pp.1–4, 18–20 June 2009Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Domingo-Ferrer J, Herrera-Joancomarti J (2000) Short collusion-secure fingerprints based on dual binary Hamming codes. Electron Lett 36(20):1697–1699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ge H, Su F, Zhu Y (2002) Color image text watermarking using wavelet transform and error-correcting code. Signal Proc, 2002 6th International Conference on, 2:1584–1587Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gu L, Huang J, Shi YQ (2003) Analysis of the role played by error correcting coding in robust watermarking. Circ Syst. ISCAS ‘03. Proceedings of the 2003 International Symposium on, vol.3, no., pp. III-798- III-801 vol.3, 25–28 May 2003Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guyeux C, Bahi JM (2010) An improved watermarking scheme for internet applications. Evolving Internet (INTERNET). Second International Conference on, vol., no., pp.119–124, 20–25 Sept. 2010Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Industrial Design and Construction (IDC) and Business Software Alliance (BSA) (2004) Piracy study.
  11. 11.
    Jayalakshmi M, Merchant SN, Desai UB (2008) Optimum retrieval of watermark from wavelet significant coefficients. IET Inf Secur 2(4):119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jung S-W, Ha LT, Ko S-J (2011) A new histogram modification based reversible data hiding algorithm considering the human visual system. IEEE Signal Process Lett 18(2):95–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kung CM, Troung TK (2006) Visual robust oblivious watermarking technique using error correcting code. Commun Technol. ICCT ‘06. International Conference on, vol., no., pp.1–4, 27–30 Nov. 2006Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li X, Yang B, Zeng T (2011) Efficient reversible watermarking based on adaptive prediction-error expansion and pixel selection. IEEE Trans Image Process 20(12):3524–3533MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lie W-N, Chang L-C (2006) Robust and high- quality time-domain audio watermarking based on low-frequency amplitude modification. IEEE Trans Multimedia 8(1):46–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nayak J, Bhat PS, Kumar MS, Acharya UR (2004) Reliable transmission and storage of medical images with patient information using error control codes. India Annu Conf. Proceedings of the IEEE Indicon 2004. First, vol., no., pp. 147–150, 20–22 Dec. 2004Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rahmani H, Mortezaei R, Moghaddam ME (2010) A new robust watermarking scheme to increase image security. EURASIP J Adv Signal Process 2010:1–30, Article ID 428183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Solanki K, Jacobsen N, Madhow U, Manjunath BS, Chandrasekaran S (2004) Robust image-adaptive data hiding using erasure and error correction. IEEE Trans Image Process 13(12):1627–1639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Terzija N, Repges M, Luck K, Geisselhardt W (2002) Digital image watermarking using discrete wavelet transform: performance comparison of error correction codes. Proc Vis Imaging Image ProcessGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Xiang S, Kim HJ, Huang J (2008) Invariant image watermarking based on statistical features in the low-frequency domain. IEEE Trans Circ Syst Video Technol 18(6):777–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Xin Y, Pawlak M (2008) M-Ary phase modulation for digital watermarking. Int J Appl Math Comput Sci 18(1):93–104MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Xuan M, Jiang J-G (2009) A novel watermarking algorithm in entropy coding based on image complexity analysis. Multimed Inf Netw Secur. MINES ‘09. International Conference on, vol.2, no., pp.126–129, 18–20 Nov. 2009Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yong Z, Li-Cai L, Shen LQ, Tao JZ (2009) A blind watermarking algorithm based on block DCT for dual color images. Electron Commer Secur. ISECS ‘09. Second International Symposium on, vol.1, no., pp.213–217, 22–24 May 2009Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Electronics Engg.Lovely Professional UniversityJalandharIndia
  2. 2.CGC- College of Engineering (Affiliated to Punjab Technical University)PunjabIndia
  3. 3.RIMTIET (Affiliated to Punjab Technical University)PunjabIndia

Personalised recommendations