Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 74, Issue 15, pp 5557–5575 | Cite as

In-camera JPEG compression detection for doubly compressed images



An illicit photography work can be exposed by its unusual compression history. Our work aims at revealing the primary JPEG compression of a camera image especially when it has undergone an out-camera JPEG compression. The proposed method runs a recompression operator on a given image using a chosen software tool (MATLAB). We measure the JPEG error between the given image and the recompressed version in the Y, Cb and Cr color channels. The in-camera compression can be easily identified by drawing the JPEG error curves. In this paper a simple and high effective method is presented for automatically detecting the compression history of an image. For a doubly compressed image, the proposed method can give the historical compression sequence with the corresponding quality factors and determine whether the first compression is the in-camera compression. Experimental results, carried out on two datasets, show that the proposed method can yield satisfactory detection accuracy, over 96 % accuracy rate for in-camera compression and no false positives with a block size of 512 × 512. The proposed method has universality. It can be applied to multi-compression detection and is robust to different sources of out-camera compression, e.g. Adobe Photoshop. This makes it more practical compared to the previous methods of double compression.


Digital image forensics In-camera compression Double JPEG compression detection Quantization tables 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ningbo UniversityNingboChina

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