Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 72, Issue 1, pp 613–636 | Cite as

A robust without intra-frame distortion drift data hiding algorithm based on H.264/AVC

  • Yunxia Liu
  • Zhitang Li
  • Xiaojing Ma
  • Jian Liu


This paper presents an improved robust data hiding algorithm based on BCH syndrome code (BCH code) technique and without distortion drift technique. The BCH code technique, which can correct the error bits caused by network transmission, packet loss, video-processing operations, various attacks, etc., encodes the embedded data by using BCH code before data hiding. The without distortion drift technique in this paper is that we exploit several paired-coefficients of a 4 × 4 discrete cosine transform (DCT) block to accumulate the embedding induced distortion, and the directions of intra-frame prediction are utilized to avert the distortion drift. It is proved analytically and shown experimentally that the new data hiding algorithm can get more robustness, effectively avert intra-frame distortion drift and get high visual quality.


Data hiding H.264/advanced video coding (AVC) BCH code Intra-frame distortion drift 



Advanced video coding


Discrete cosine transform


BCH syndrome code


Integer discrete cosine transform



The authors would like to thank the reviewers for their insightful comments and helpful suggestions.

This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61272407 and by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) under Grant No. 2007AA01Z420.


  1. 1.
    Chen SH, Yu S-Y, Chang CH (sutc 2008) Speech Watermarking Based on Wavelet Transform and BCH Coding. In: 2008 IEEE International Conference on Sensor Networks, Ubiquitous, and Trustworthy Computing, pp 507–512Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gong X and Lu HM (2008) Towards Fast and Robust Watermarking Scheme for H.264 Video. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Interna-tional Symposium on Multimedia(ISM ’08), pp 649–653Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Luo W, Huang F, Huang J (2011) A more secure steganography based on adaptive. Multimed Tools Appl 52:407–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ma XJ, Li ZT, Lv J and Wang WD (2009) Data Hiding in H.264/AVC Streams with Limited Intra-Frame Distortion Drift. In: Computer network and Multimedia Technology(CNMT 2009),pp 1–5Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ma XJ, Li ZT, Tu H, Zhang BC (2010) A data hiding algorithm for H.264/AVC video streams without intraframe distortion Drift. IEEE Trans Circ Syst Video Tech 20(10):1320–1330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ni Z, Shi Y, Ansari N, Su W, Sun Q, Lin X (2008) Robust lossless image data hiding designed for semi-fragile image authentication. IEEE Trans Circ Syst Video Tech 18(4):497–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Noorkami M, Mersereau RM (2007) A framework for robust watermarking of H.264-encoded video with controllable detection performance. IEEE Trans Inf Forensic Secur 2(1):14–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Richardson IEG (2003) H. 264 and MPEG-4 video compression: video coding for next-generation multimedia. Wiley, U.KCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sachnev Kim HJ and Zhang R (2009) Less detectable JPEG steganography method based on heuristic optimization and BCH syndrome coding. In: Proceedings of the 11th ACM Multimedia & Security Work- shop, pp 131–140Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sachnev V, Kim HJ and Zhang R (2009) Less detectable JPEG steganography method based on heuristic optimization and BCH syndrome coding. In: Proceedings of the 11th ACM Multimedia & Security Workshop, pp 131–140Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    SchÄonfeld D, Winkler A (2008) Reducing the complexity of syndrome coding for embedding. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Information Hiding (IH ’07), pp 145–158Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang LY, Ling HF, Zou FH, Lu ZD (2012) Real-time compressed- domain video watermarking resistance to geometric distortions. IEEE MultiMedia V 19:70–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wong K, Tanaka K, Takagi K, Nakajima Y (2009) Complete video quality-preserving data hiding. IEEE Trans Circ Syst Video Tech 19:1499–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhang X, Li T, Zhang Y, Li W, Li K (2012) A novel blind detector for additive noise steganography in JPEG decompressed images. Multimedia Tools and Applications. doi: 10.1007/s11042-012-1112-2
  15. 15.
    Zhang R, Sachnev V and Kim HJ (2009) Fast BCH syndromecoding for steganography. In: Proc. of 11th International Workshop on Information Hiding, pp 48–58Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yunxia Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhitang Li
    • 1
  • Xiaojing Ma
    • 1
  • Jian Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.Huazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina
  2. 2.Zhoukou Normal UniversityZhoukouChina

Personalised recommendations