Advertisement

Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 71, Issue 3, pp 991–1012 | Cite as

A robust video watermarking algorithm based on singular value decomposition and slope-based embedding technique

  • Hongyuan Chen
  • Yuesheng ZhuEmail author
Article

Abstract

In this work, we propose a robust watermarking algorithm for video copyright protection. The proposed algorithm is characterized by four key features. First, a robust feature obtained by singular value decomposition is selected to embed the watermark. Second, a novel slope-based embedding technique is developed to embed a 1-bit watermark into several successive blocks in the temporal direction, thus enhancing the robustness against global attacks. Third, an embedding location selection method is used to give priority to blocks with small variations that can enhance the visual quality of the watermarked video. Fourth, a temporal synchronization method is introduced to effectively withstand temporal synchronization attacks. The experimental results demonstrate that our scheme has good imperceptibility and is robust against various attacks, such as noise addition, filtering, gamma correction, lossy compression, scaling, frame dropping, frame insertion, and frame averaging. Furthermore, the watermark can be extracted using only some side information rather than the original video, which makes the scheme more practical.

Keywords

Video watermarking Singular value decomposition Slope-based embedding Copyright protection 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the “Shuang Bai Project” of Shenzhen Research Program, and 973 Program #2012CB315904, China.

References

  1. 1.
    Abdallah HA, Hadhoud MM, Shaalan AA (2009) SVD-based watermarking scheme in complex wavelet domain for color video. In: Int Conf on Computer Engineering & Systems (ICCES 2009), pp 455–460Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Al-Taweel SAM, Sumari P (2009) Robust video watermarking based on 3D-DWT domain. In: Proc of TENCON’09, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Azadeh M, Mahmoudi AA, Farah TA (2010) A low complexity video watermarking in H.264 compressed domain. IEEE Trans Inf Forensic Secur 5(4):649–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Campisi P, Neri A (2005) Video watermarking in the 3D-DWT domain using perceptual masking. In: Int Conf on Image Processing (ICIP 2005), pp. 997–1000Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chan P, Lyu M (2003) A DWT-based digital video watermarking scheme with error correcting code. Lect Notes Comput Sci 2836:202–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chandramouli R, Memon N, Rabbani M (2002) Digital watermarking. In: Hornak JP (ed) Encyclopedia of imaging science and technology. Wiley, New York, pp 226–239Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen B, Wornell G (2001) Quantization index modulation: a class of provably good methods for digital watermarking and information embedding. IEEE Trans Inf Theory 47(4):1423–1443CrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cheveau L, Goray E, Salmon R (2001) Watermarking—summary results of EBU tests. In: EBU TECHNICAL REVIEW, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Esen E, Alatan AA (2011) Robust video data hiding using forbidden zone data hiding and selective embedding. IEEE Trans Circ Syst Video Technol 21(8):1130–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fan M, Wang H (2009) Chaos-based discrete fractional sine transform domain audio watermarking scheme. Comput Electr Eng 35(3):506–516CrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fung CWH, Godoy WJ (2011) A new approach of DWT-SVD video watermarking. In: Int Conf on Computational Intelligence, Modelling and Simulation, pp 233–236Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ge QM, Lu ZM, Niu XM (2003) Oblivious video watermarking scheme with adaptive embedding mechanism. In: Int. Conf. on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, pp 2876–2881Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Huang H, Yang C, Hsu W (2010) A video watermarking technique based on pseudo-3-D DCT and quantization index modulation. IEEE Trans Inf Forensic Secur 5(4):625–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lee YY, Jung HS, Lee SU (2003) 3D DFT-based video watermarking using perceptual models. Int Midwest Symp Circuits Syst, In, pp 1579–1582Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li Y, Cao XB, Ji HB (2003) A 3D wavelet based spatial-temporal approach for video watermarking. In: Int Conf on Computational Intelligence and Multimedia Applications (ICCIMA 2003), pp 260–265Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Li W, Xue XY, Lu PZ (2006) Localized audio watermarking technique robust against time-scale modification. IEEE Trans Multimedia 8(1):60–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lin S, Chuang C, Meng H (2009) A video watermarking in H.264/AVC encoder. In: Proc of IIH-MSP’09, pp 340–343Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ling H, Wang L, Zou F (2011) Robust video watermarking based on affine invariant regions in the compressed domain. Signal Process 91(8):1863–1875CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ling H, Wang L, Zou F (2011) Real-time video watermarking scheme resistant to geometric distortions. J Electron Imaging 20(1):013025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Liu LS, Li RH, Gao Q (2005) A robust video watermarking scheme based on DCT. In: Int Conf on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, pp 5176–5180Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liu Y, Zhao J (2009) A new video watermarking algorithm based on 1D DFT and Radon transform. Signal Process 90(2):626–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Niu K, Yang XY, Xiang L (2010) Hybrid quasi-3D DWT/DCT and SVD video watermarking. In: Int Conf on Software Engineering and Service Sciences (ICSESS 2010), pp 588–591Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Osama SF (2011) Discrete wavelet transform-based spatial-temporal approach for quantized video watermarking. Opt Eng 50(7):077402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Preda RO, Vizireanu DN (2007) Blind watermarking capacity analysis of MPEG2 coded video. In: Int Conf on Telecommunications in Modern Satellite, Cable and Broadcasting Services (TELSIKS 2007), pp 465–468Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Preda RO, Vizireanu DN (2010) A robust digital watermarking scheme for video copyright protection in the wavelet domain. Measurement 43(10):1720–1726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Preda RO, Vizireanu DN (2011) Robust wavelet-based video watermarking scheme for copyright protection using the human visual system. J Electron Imaging 20(1):013022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rajab L, Al-Khatib T, Al-Haj A (2008) Hybrid DWT-SVD video watermarking. In: Int Conf on Innovations in Information Technology, pp 588–592Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sun T, Jiang X, Shi S, Lin Z, Fu G (2009) A novel differential energy video watermarking based on Watson visual model. In: Proc of ISECS’09, pp 179–183Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vivekananda BK, Sengupta I, Das A (2011) An audio watermarking scheme using singular value decomposition and dither-modulation quantization. Multimed Tools Appl 52(2–3):369–383Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wu D, Kong WH, Yang B, Niu X (2009) A fast SVD based video watermarking algorithm compatible with MPEG2 Standard. Soft Comput 13(4):375–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Xu D, Wang R, Wang J (2009) Blind digital watermarking of low bit-rate advanced H.264/AVC compressed video. Lect Notes Comput Sci 5703:96–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Communication and Information Security Lab, Shenzhen Graduate SchoolPeking UniversityShenzhenChina

Personalised recommendations