Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

CHM: an annotation- and component-based hypervideo model for the Web

Abstract

Hypervideos are hypermedia documents that focus on video content. While they have long been deployed using specialized software or even hardware, the Web now offers a ground for them to fit into standardized languages and implementations. However, hypervideo design also currently uses very specific models limited to a single class of documents, or very generic hypermedia models that may not appropriately express their specific features. In this article we describe such features, and we introduce CHM, an annotation-driven and component-based model to conceptualize hypervideos through a high level operational specification. An extensible set of high level components is defined to emphasize the presentation and interaction features modeling, while lower level components offer more flexibility and customization opportunities. Being annotation-based, the model promotes a clear separation between video content/metadata and their various potential presentations. We also describe WebCHM, an implementation of CHM with standard Web technologies that provides a general framework to experiment with hypervideos on the Web. Two examples are provided as well as a preliminary usage study of the model and its implementation to validate our claims and proposals.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Listing 1
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14

Notes

  1. 1.

    Advene (Annotate Digital Video, Exchange on the NEtwww.advene.org) designates a project, a data model, as well as an open source, multi-platform application for creating hypervideos.

  2. 2.

    Common hypermedia concerns might be more pronounced in hypervideo due to the important risk of overstraining the cognitive capacities of users and putting them under time pressure during navigation [56]. The potential of increased cognitive load might lead to user disorientation [12]: in addition to the common space disorientation generally found in hypermedia, the time-based nature of audiovisual documents brings time disorientation as well as time pressure through time-limited interactivity opportunities

  3. 3.

    http://liris.cnrs.fr/advene/cinelab.html

  4. 4.

    The first version of the proposed language and tools—with code and examples—is available at http://www.advene.org/chm/.

  5. 5.

    A Flash fall-back for video management has been implemented for cases when the browser does not support the <video> element.

  6. 6.

    http://www.w3.org/2008/WebVideo/Fragments/

  7. 7.

    See http://www.advene.org/examples/tbl_linked_data/making_of.html

  8. 8.

    From the Multimedia Systems and Structured Documents team of CERIST, Algeria.

References

  1. 1.

    Alisi T, Bertini M, D’Amico G, Del Bimbo A, Ferracani A, Pernici F, Serra G (2009) Arneb: a rich internet application for ground truth annotation of videos. In: Proceedings of the 17th ACM international conference on multimedia. ACM, New York, pp 965–966

  2. 2.

    America ME (2000) Authoring with hyperlinked video. Technical report, Mitsubishi Electric America

  3. 3.

    Aubert O, Prié Y (2005) Advene: active reading through hypervideo. In: Proceedings of the 16th ACM conference on hypertext and hypermedia. ACM, New York, pp 235–244

  4. 4.

    Barišić A, Amaral V, Goulão M, Barroca B (2011) Quality in use of domain-specific languages: a case study. In: Proceedings of the 3rd ACM SIGPLAN workshop on evaluation and usability of programming languages and tools. ACM, New York, pp 65–72

  5. 5.

    Bove M, Dakss J, Agamanolis S, Chalom E (2000) Hyperlinked television research at the MIT Media Laboratory. IBM Syst J 39:470–478

  6. 6.

    Bulterman D (2008) Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL 3.0). W3C recommendation, W3C. http://www.w3.org/TR/SMIL3/. Accessed 30 Jan 2012

  7. 7.

    Bulterman DCA, Hardman L (2005) Structured multimedia authoring. ACM Trans Multimedia Comput Commun Appl 1:89–109

  8. 8.

    Casanova MA, Tucherman L, Lima MJD, Rangel Netto JL, Rodriquez N, Soares LFG (1991) The nested context model for hyperdocuments. In: Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM conference on hypertext. ACM, New York, pp 193–201

  9. 9.

    Cazenave F, Quint V, Roisin C (2011) Timesheets.js: when SMIL meets HTML5 and CSS3. In: Proceedings of the 11th ACM symposium on document engineering. ACM, New York, pp 43–52

  10. 10.

    Chambel, T., Chhaganlal MN, Neng LAR (2011) Towards immersive interactive video through 360° hypervideo. In: Proceedings of the 8th international conference on advances in computer entertainment technology. ACM, New York, pp 78:1–78:2

  11. 11.

    Chambel T, Guimaraes N (2002) Context perception in video-based hypermedia spaces. In: Proceedings of the 13th conference on hypertext and hypermedia. College Park, Maryland, pp 85–94

  12. 12.

    Chambel T, Zahn C, Finke M (2004) Hypervideo design and support for contextualized learning. In: IEEE international conference on advanced learning technologies (ICALT’04). Joensuu, Finland, pp 345–349

  13. 13.

    Daniels J, Fels S, Kushniruk A, Lim J, Ansermino J (2007) A framework for evaluating usability of clinical monitoring technology. J Clin Monit Comput 21:323–330. doi:10.1007/s10877-007-9091-y

  14. 14.

    Davis M, King S, Good N, Sarvas R (2004) From context to content: leveraging context to infer media metadata. In: Proceedings of the 12th annual ACM international conference on multimedia. ACM, New York, pp 188–195

  15. 15.

    Deltour R, Roisin C (2006) The LimSee3 multimedia authoring model. In: Proceedings of the 2006 ACM symposium on document engineering, pp 173–175

  16. 16.

    Fagá R, Motti VG, Cattelan RG, Teixeira CAC, da Graça Campos Pimentel M (2010) A social approach to authoring media annotations. In: 10th ACM symposium on document engineering, pp 17–26

  17. 17.

    Finke M (2004) Mobile interactive video. Technical report, IST-2001-37365, MUMMY Project

  18. 18.

    Geurts JPTM (2010) A document engineering model and processing framework for multimedia documents. Ph.D. thesis, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven

  19. 19.

    Girgensohn A, Wilcox L, Shipman F, Bly S (2004) Designing affordances for the navigation of detail-on-demand hypervideo. In: Proceedings of ACM advanced visual interfaces, pp 290–297

  20. 20.

    Halasz F, Schwartz M (1994) The Dexter hypertext reference model. Commun ACM 37(2): 30–39

  21. 21.

    Hammoud RI (2006) Introduction to interactive video. In: Interactive video. Springer, New York, pp 3–24

  22. 22.

    Hardman L, Bulterman DCA, van Rossum G (1994) The Amsterdam hypermedia model: adding time and context to the Dexter model. Commun ACM 37:50–62

  23. 23.

    Hickson I (2011) HTML5. http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/. Accessed 30 Jan 2012

  24. 24.

    Hoffmann P, Kochems T, Herczeg M (2008) HyLive: hypervideo-authoring for live television. In: Proceedings of the 6th European conference on changing television environments. Springer, Berlin, pp 51–60

  25. 25.

    InnoTeamS GmbH (2012) ADIVI—hypervideo für lernen und support. Website http://www.adivi.net/. Accessed 30 Jan 2012

  26. 26.

    ISO (1998) Ergonomic requirements for office work with Visual Display Terminals (VDTs)—Part 11: guidance on usability. ISO Standard

  27. 27.

    Jansen J, Bulterman DC (2009) SMIL state: an architecture and implementation for adaptive time-based web applications. Multimed Tools Appl 43:203–224

  28. 28.

    Jansen J, Cesar P, Bulterman DC (2010) A model for editing operations on active temporal multimedia documents. In: 10th ACM symposium on document engineering, pp 87–96

  29. 29.

    Kipp M (2001) ANVIL—a generic annotation tool for multimodal dialogue. In: Proceedings of the 7th European conference on speech communication and technology (Eurospeech). Aalborg, pp 1367–1370

  30. 30.

    Kokkoras F, Jiang H, Vlahavas I, Elmagarmid AK, Houstis EN, Aref WG (2002) Smart videotext: a video data model based on conceptual graphs. Multimedia Syst 8:328–338

  31. 31.

    Laiola Guimarães R, Cesar P, Bulterman DC (2010) Creating and sharing personalized time-based annotations of videos on the web. In: 10th ACM symposium on document engineering, pp 27–36

  32. 32.

    Li J, Ding Y, Shi Y, Zhang J (2010) Building a large annotation ontology for movie video retrieval. JDCTA 4(5):74–81

  33. 33.

    Likert R (1932) A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Arch Psychol 22(140):5–55

  34. 34.

    Lippman A (1980) Movie-maps: an application of the optical videodisc to computer graphics. In: Proceedings of the 7th annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques. ACM, New York, pp 32–42

  35. 35.

    Meixner B, Siegel B, Hölbling G, Lehner F, Kosch H (2010) SIVA suite: authoring system and player for interactive non-linear videos. In: Proceedings of the international conference on multimedia. ACM, New York, pp 1563–1566

  36. 36.

    Memon QA, Khoja SA (2003) Object-database approach for a hypervideo platform. Malays J Comput Sci 16(2):73–80

  37. 37.

    Miller G, Fels S, Al Hajri A, Ilich M, Foley-Fisher Z, Fernandez M, Jang D (2011) MediaDiver: viewing and annotating multi-view video. In: Proceedings of the 2011 annual conference extended abstracts on human factors in computing systems. ACM, New York, pp 1141–1146

  38. 38.

    Morales M (2001) Hypervideo as a tool for communicating mathematics. Master’s thesis, European Master in Multimedia and Audiovisual Business Administration, Haute Ecole Groupe ICHEC ISC ST-Saint-Louis-ISFSC

  39. 39.

    Mozilla (2012) Popcorn.js The HTML5 media framework. Website http://www.popcornjs.org/. Accessed 30 Jan 2012

  40. 40.

    Mozilla (2012) Web made movies. Retrieved from https://www.drumbeat.org/en-US/projects/webmademovies/. Accessed 30 Jan 2012

  41. 41.

    Mujacic S, Debevc M, Kosec P, Bloice M, Holzinger A (2012) Modeling, design, development and evaluation of a hypervideo presentation for digital systems teaching and learning. Multimed Tools Appl 58(2):435–452

  42. 42.

    Navarrete T, Blat J (2002) VideoGIS: segmenting and indexing video based on geographic information. In: 5th AGILE conference on geographic information science, pp 1–9

  43. 43.

    Nelson TH (1965) Complex information processing: a file structure for the complex, the changing and the indeterminate. In: Proceedings of the 1965 20th national conference. ACM, New York, pp 84–100

  44. 44.

    Nelson TH (1987) Computer Lib/dream machines. Microsoft Press, Redmond

  45. 45.

    Olivier MS (2009) Information technology research—a practical guide for computer science and informatics, 2nd edn. Van Schaik, Pretoria

  46. 46.

    Pollone M, Rusconi M, Tua R (2002) From hyper-film to hyper-web: the challenging continuation of a European project. In: Electronic imaging and the visual arts conference. Florence, Italy

  47. 47.

    Roisin C (1998) Authoring structured multimedia documents. In: Proceedings of the 25th conference on current trends in theory and practice of informatics: theory and practice of informatics. Springer, London, pp 222–239

  48. 48.

    Sadallah M, Aubert O, Prié Y (2011) Component-based hypervideo model: high-level operational specification of hypervideos. In: ACM (ed) Document Engineering 2011 (DocEng 2011), pp 53–56

  49. 49.

    Sawhney NN, Balcom D, Smith IE (1996) HyperCafe: narrative and aesthetic properties of hypervideo. In: UK conference on hypertext. Bethesda, Maryland, pp 1–10

  50. 50.

    Schmitz P, Patterson A, Newman D (2002) XHTML+SMIL profile. W3C note, W3C. http://www.w3.org/TR/XHTMLplusSMIL/. Accessed 30 Jan 2012

  51. 51.

    Schmitz P, Yu J, Santangeli P (1998) Timed interactive multimedia extensions for HTML. W3C note, W3C. http://www.w3.org/TR/NOTE-HTMLplusTIME. Accessed 30 Jan 2012

  52. 52.

    Shipman F, Girgensohn A, Wilcox L (2003) Combining spatial and navigational structure in the hyper-hitchcock hypervideo editor. In: Proceedings of the 14th ACM conference on hypertext and hypermedia, pp 124–125

  53. 53.

    Shipman F, Girgensohn A, Wilcox L (2003) Generation of interactive multi-level video summaries. In: Proceedings of the 11th ACM international conference on multimedia. ACM, New York, pp 392–401

  54. 54.

    Silva HVO, Rodrigues RF, Soares LFG, Muchaluat Saade DC (2004) NCL 2.0: integrating new concepts to XML modular languages. In: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM symposium on document engineering. ACM, New York, pp 188–197

  55. 55.

    Soares LFG, Rodrigues RF (2005) Nested context model 3.0 Part 1—NCM core. Technical report, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro

  56. 56.

    Tiellet CA, Pereira AG, Reategui EB, Lima JV, Chambel T (2010) Design and evaluation of a hypervideo environment to support veterinary surgery learning. In: 21st ACM conference on hypertext and hypermedia. ACM, pp 213–222

  57. 57.

    Vendrig J, Worring M (2003) Interactive adaptive movie annotation. IEEE Multimed 10:30–37

  58. 58.

    VideoClix.tv (2012) Clickable video. Interactive video advertising. Website http://www.videoclix.net/. Accessed 30 Jan 2012

  59. 59.

    YouTube (2009) Getting started: creating or editing annotations. Website http://www.google.com/support/youtube/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=92710. Accessed 30 Jan 2012

  60. 60.

    Zahn C, Barquero B, Schwan S (2004) Learning with hyperlinked videos—design criteria and efficient strategies for using audiovisual hypermedia. Learn Instr 14:275–291

  61. 61.

    Zoller P (2001) HMT: modeling interactive and adaptive hypermedia applications. In: Information modeling in the new millennium. Springer, New York, pp 383–405

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work has been partially funded by the French FUI (Fonds Unique Interministériel) CineCast project. It is supported by the Algerian Research Center on Scientific and Technical Information (CERIST).

Author information

Correspondence to Olivier Aubert.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Sadallah, M., Aubert, O. & Prié, Y. CHM: an annotation- and component-based hypervideo model for the Web. Multimed Tools Appl 70, 869–903 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-012-1177-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Annotation
  • Advene
  • CHM
  • Hypervideo
  • Component
  • Time and synchronization
  • WebCHM