Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 70, Issue 2, pp 977–1005 | Cite as

Building mobile multimedia services: a hybrid cloud computing approach

Article

Abstract

Mobile multimedia services are in high demand, but their development comes at high costs. The emergent computing paradigm cloud computing has great potential to embrace these issues. In fact, we are at the early stage of the coalescence of cloud computing, mobile multimedia and the Web. Motivated by the tremendous success story of the Web based on its simplicity principles, we argue for a comprehensive review on current practices of web and mobile multimedia cloud computing techniques for avoiding frictions. We draw on experience from the development of advanced collaborative multimedia web applications utilizing multimedia metadata standards like MPEG-7 and real-time communication protocols like XMPP. We propose our i5CLoud, a hybrid cloud architecture, which serves as a substrate for scalable and fast time-to-market mobile multimedia services. This paper demonstrates the applicability of emerging cloud computing concepts for mobile multimedia.

Keywords

Mobile multimedia Cloud computing Multimedia metadata XMPP 

References

  1. 1.
    Almeida M, Matos A (2010) Bridging the devices with the Web Cloud: a restful management architecture over XMPP. In: Proceedings of the 6th international mobile multimedia communications conference, vol 10Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Amazon.com, Inc. (2012) Amazon Web services. URL http://aws.amazon.com
  3. 3.
    Armbrust M, Fox A, Patterson D, Lanham N, Oh H, Trushkowsky B, Trutna J (2009) SCADS: scale-independent storage for social computing applications. In: Proceedings of the 4th biennial conference on innovative data systems research (CIDR)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arndt R, Troncy R, Staab S, Hardman L, Vacura M (2007) COMM: designing a well-founded multimedia ontology for the Web. In: The Semantic Web, 6th international Semantic Web conference, 2nd Asian Semantic Web conference (ISWC 2007 + ASWC 2007). Springer, pp 30–43Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baker J, Bond C, Corbett J, Furman JJ, Khorlin A, Larson J, Leon JM, Li Y, Lloyd A, Yushprakh V (2011) Megastore: providing scalable, highly available storage for interactive services. In: Proceedings of the 5th biennial conference on innovative data systems research (CIDR), pp 223–234Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Calheiros RN, Ranjan R, Beloglazov A, De Rose CAF, Buyya R (2011) CloudSim: a toolkit for modeling and simulation of cloud computing environments and evaluation of resource provisioning algorithms. Software Pract Exper 41:23–50. doi:10.1002/spe.995 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cao Y, Jarke M, Klamma R, Mendoza O, Srirama S (2009) Mobile access to MPEG-7 based multimedia services. In: 2009 tenth international conference on mobile data management: systems, services and middleware. IEEE, Taipei, pp 102–111. doi:10.1109/MDM.2009.21 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cao Y, Klamma R, Khodaei M (2009) A multimedia service with MPEG-7 metadata and context semantics. In: Grigoras R, Charvillat V, Klamma R, Kosch H (eds) [23], CEUR-WS, vol 441. URL http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-441/p09.pdf
  9. 9.
    Cao Y, Klamma R, Kovachev D (2009) Multimedia processing on multimedia semantics and multimedia context. In: Proceedings of the 10th multimedia metadata community workshop on semantic multimedia database technologies (SeMuDaTe’09), CEUR-WS, vol 539Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cao Y, Klamma R, Jarke M (2010) Mobile multimedia management for Virtual Campfire—the German excellence research cluster UMIC. Int J Comput Syst Sci Eng (IJCSSE) 25(3):251–265Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cao Y, Renzel D, Jarke M, Klamma R, Lottko M, Toubekis G, Jansen M (2010) Well-balanced usability & annotation complexity in interactive video semantization. In: Proceedings of the 4th international conference on multimedia and ubiquitous engineering (MUE 2010), pp 1–8. doi:10.1109/MUE.2010.5575051
  12. 12.
    Cervino J, Rodriguez P, Trajkovska I, Mozo A, Salvachua J (2011) Testing a cloud provider network for hybrid P2P and cloud streaming architectures. In: IEEE international conference on cloud computing. IEEE Computer Society, pp 356–363. doi:10.1109/CLOUD.2011.52
  13. 13.
    Chang F, Dean J, Ghemawat S, Hsieh WC, Wallach DA, Burrows M, Chandra T, Fikes A, Gruber RE (2008) Bigtable: a distributed storage system for structured data. ACM Trans Comput Syst 26(2):1–26. doi:10.1145/1365815.1365816 CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chun BG, Maniatis P (2009) Augmented smartphone applications through clone cloud execution. In: Proceedings of the 12th workshop on hot topics in operating systems (HotOS XII). USENIX, Monte Verita, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cisco Systems (2012) Cisco visual networking index: global mobile data traffic forecast update, 2011–2016. White paper, FLGD 10229 02/12. URL http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/ns705/ns827/white_paper_c11-520862.pdf
  16. 16.
    Cuervo E, Balasubramanian A, Cho Dk, Wolman A, Saroiu S, Chandra R, Bahl P (2010) MAUI: making smartphones last longer with code offload. In: Proceedings of the 8th international conference on mobile systems, applications, and services (ACM MobiSys ’10). ACM, San Francisco, pp 49–62Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dean J, Ghemawat S (2004) MapReduce: simplified data processing on large clusters. In: Proceedings of the 6th conference and symposium on operating systems design & implementation (OSDI’04). USENIX Association, San Francisco, p 10Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dodson B, Cannon A, Huang TY, Lam MS (2010) The junction protocol for ad hoc peer-to-peer mobile applications. Computer Science Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fitzpatrick B (2007) Livejournal: behind the scenes, scaling storytime. Talk at USENIXGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Garcia A, Kalva H, Furht B (2010) A study of transcoding on cloud environments for video content delivery. In: Proceedings of the 2010 ACM multimedia workshop on mobile cloud media computing. ACM, pp 13–18. doi:10.1145/1877953.1877959
  21. 21.
    Gerlicher ARS (2007) Developing collaborative XML editing systems. Ph.D. thesis, University of the Arts LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gilbert S, Lynch N (2002) Brewer’s conjecture and the feasibility of consistent available partition-tolerant Web services. In: In ACM SIGACT newsGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Grigoras R, Charvillat V, Klamma R, Kosch H (eds) (2009) Proceedings of the 9th workshop on multimedia metadata (WMM’09), Toulouse, France, 19–20 March 2009, CEUR-WS, vol 441. URL http://sunsite.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/Publications/CEUR-WS/Vol-441/
  24. 24.
    Gustedt J, Jeannot E, Quinson M (2009) Experimental validation in large-scale systems: a survey of methodologies. Parallel Process Lett 19(3):399–418CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hornsby A, Walsh R (2010) From instant messaging to cloud computing, an XMPP review. In: Proceedings of the the 14th IEEE international symposium on consumer electronics (ISCE 2010). IEEE, Braunschweig, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    HTML5—A vocabulary and associated APIs for HTML and XHTML (2011). URL http://dev.w3.org/html5/spec/Overview.html
  27. 27.
    Kemp R, Palmer N, Kielmann T, Bal H (2010) Cuckoo: a computation offloading framework for smartphones. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international ICST conference on mobile computing, applications, and services (MobiCASE 2010). Santa Clara, CA, USAGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Klamma R, Jarke M (2008) Mobile social software for professional communities. UPGRADE IX(3):37–43. URL http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.141.4712&rep=rep1&type=pdf Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kosch H (2003) Distributed multimedia database technologies supported by MPEG-7 and MPEG-21. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kovachev D, Cao Y, Klamma R (2010) Augmenting pervasive environments with an XMPP-based mobile cloud middleware. In: Proceedings of the international workshop on mobile computing and clouds (MobiCloud 2010) in conjunction with MobiCASE 2010. Springer, Santa Clara, CA, USAGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kovachev D, Renzel D, Klamma R, Cao Y (2010) Mobile community cloud computing: emerges and evolves. In: Proceedings of the first international workshop on mobile cloud computing (MCC 2010). IEEE, Kansas City, MO, USAGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kovachev D, Cao Y, Klamma R (2011) Mobile cloud computing: a comparison of application models. CoRR abs/1107.4940
  33. 33.
    Kristensen MD (2010) Empowering mobile devices through cyber foraging: the development of scavenger, an open, mobile cyber foraging system. Phd thesis, Aarhus University, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kumar K, Lu YH (2010) Cloud computing for mobile users: can offloading computation save energy? Computer 43(4):51–56. doi:10.1109/MC.2010.98 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lagesse BJ (2011) Challenges in securing the interface between the cloud and mobile systems. In: Proceedings of the 1th IEEE PerCom workshop on pervasive communities and service clouds (PerCoSC 2011). IEEE, Seattle, WA, USAGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Manyika J, Chui M, Brown B, Bughin J, Dobbs R, Roxburgh C, Hung Byers A (2011) Big data: the next frontier for innovation, competition, and productivity, Technical Report, McKinsey Golbal Institute, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Muldowney T, Miller M, Eatmon R, Saint-Andre P (2004) Xep-0096: Si file transfer. XEP-0096 (Standards Track). URL http://xmpp.org/extensions/xep-0096.html
  38. 38.
    Novell Inc. (2011) Novell vibe. http://www.novell.com/products/vibe/. Last accessed: 30 November 2011
  39. 39.
    Ou S, Yang K, Zhang J (2007) An effective offloading middleware for pervasive services on mobile devices. Pervasive Mob Comput 3:362–385. doi:10.1016/j.pmcj.2007.04.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pajak D, Herzog R, Eisemann E, Myszkowski K, Seidel HP (2011) Scalable remote rendering with depth and motion-flow augmented streaming. Computer Graphics Forum 30(2):415–424. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8659.2011.01871.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Parkvall S, Furuskär A, Dahlman E (2011) Evolution of LTE toward IMT-advanced. IEEE Commun Mag 49(2):84–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pearson S (2009) Taking account of privacy when designing cloud computing services. In: Proceedings of the 2009 ICSE workshop on software engineering challenges of cloud computing. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, pp 44–52. doi:10.1109/CLOUD.2009.5071532 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
  44. 44.
    Realtime I (2011) Openfire XMPP server. [Online]. http://www.igniterealtime.org/projects/openfire/. Last accessed at April 2011
  45. 45.
    Saint-Andre P (2008) Xep-0045: Multi-user chat. XEP-0045 (Standards Track). URL http://xmpp.org/extensions/xep-0045.htm
  46. 46.
    Saint-Andre P, Smith K, Tronçon R (2009) XMPP: the definitive guide. O’ReillyGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Satyanarayanan M, Bahl P, Cáceres R, Davies N (2009) The case for VM-based cloudlets in mobile computing. IEEE Pervasive Computing 8(4):14–23. doi:10.1109/MPRV.2009.82 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Schuster D, Springer T, Schill A (2010) Service-based development of mobile real-time collaboration applications for social networks. In: Proceedings of IEEE PerCom workshops (PerCol’10), pp 232–237Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Spaniol M, Klamma R, Janßen H, Renzel D (2006) LAS: a lightweight application server for MPEG-7 services in community engines. In: Tochtermann K, Maurer H (eds) Proceedings of I-KNOW ’06, 6th international conference on knowledge management, Graz, Austria, 6–8 September 2006. JUCS (Journal of Universal Computer Science) proceedings, pp 592–599. Springer. URL http://www-i5.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/lehrstuhl/staff/klamma/download/skjr06.pdf
  50. 50.
    Sun C, Ellis C (1998) Operational transformation in real-time group editors: issues, algorithms, and achievements. In: Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on computer supported cooperative work, CSCW ’98. ACM, pp 59–68. doi:10.1145/289444.289469
  51. 51.
    The Apache Software Foundation (2011) Apache wave. http://incubator.apache.org/wave/. Last accessed: 30 November 2011
  52. 52.
    Vetro A, Christopoulos C, Sun H (2003) Video transcoding architectures and techniques: an overview. IEEE Signal Process Mag 20(2):18–29. doi:10.1109/MSP.2003.1184336 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Voigt M (2009) Erweiterung und anpassung des collaborative editing framework for XML (CEFX). Master’s thesis, University of Applied Sciences Erfurt. URL http://www.ai.fh-erfurt.de/studium/studentische_arbeiten/masterarbeiten/einzelansicht_ma_arbeiten/article/erweiterung-und-anpassung-des-collaborative-editing-framework-for-xml-cefx/
  54. 54.
    Wagener J, Spjuth O, Willighagen E, Wikberg J (2009) XMPP for cloud computing in bioinformatics supporting discovery and invocation of asynchronous Web services. BMC Bioinformatics 10(1):279. doi:10.1186/1471-2105-10-279 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wenger E (1998) Communities of practice: learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    W3C Video on the Web Activity (2011) Ontology for media resources 1.0. http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/CR-mediaont-10-20110707/. Last accessed: 30 November 2011
  57. 57.
    Zhang X, Kunjithapatham A, Jeong S, Gibbs S (2011) Towards an elastic application model for augmenting the computing capabilities of mobile devices with cloud computing. Mobile Networks Appl 16:270–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.RWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany

Personalised recommendations