Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 61, Issue 3, pp 769–786 | Cite as

Content driven QoE assessment for video frame rate and frame resolution reduction

  • Lucjan Janowski
  • Piotr Romaniak
  • Zdzisław Papir


Video bit rate reduction is very important for all video streaming applications. One possibility involves quantization domain and the majority of the work devoted to bit rate reduction focuses on this aspect only. The other possibility is to modify a video in time or space domain i.e. change the frames per second FPS rate or frame resolution FR. In this paper we present two no reference metrics mapping FPS rate and FR into MOS (Mean Opinion Scale). The performance of both models is significantly improved by incorporating content characteristics such as spatial information SI and temporal information TI. The impact on Quality of Experience (QoE) of both content characteristics is discussed with relation to the FPS rate and FR changes and general conclusions are drawn. The models were estimated and verified upon results of subjective experiments performed using video sequences of diverse spatial and temporal variability. The considered FPS rate was changed from 5 to 30 and the considered FR was changed from SQCIF to SD.


Video QoE FPS Resolution No-reference quality metric 



The presented work was supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education under the European Regional Development Fund, Grant No. POIG.01.01.02-00-045/09-00 Future Internet Engineering. Subjective tests were supported by European Regional Development Fund within INSIGMA project no. POIG.01.01.02-00-062/09.


  1. 1.
    Armstrong M, Flynn D, Hammond M, Jolly S, Salmon R (2008) High frame-rate television. Research white paper WHP 169, British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brownlow K (1980) Silent films: what was the right speed? Sight Sound 3(49):164–167Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen J, Thropp J (2007) Review of low frame rate effects on human performance. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern Syst Hum 37(6):1063–1076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fenimore C, Libert J, Wolf S (1998) Perceptual effects of noise in digital video compression. In: 140th SMPTE technical conference, Pasadena, CA, pp 28–31Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Inazumi Y, Yoshida T, Sakai Y, Yuukou H (2003) Estimation of the optimal frame rate for video communications under bit-rate constraints. Electron Commun Jpn, Part 1 Commun 86(12):54–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    International Telecommunications Union—Telecommunication Sector (1999) Subjective video quality assessment methods for multimedia applications. Recommendation ITU-R P.910Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Janowski L, Papir Z (2009) Modeling subjective tests of quality of experience with a generalized linear model. In: QoMEX 2009, first international workshop on quality of multimedia experience, California, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Leszczuk M, Janowski L, Romaniak P, Głowacz A, Mirek R (2011) Quality assessment for a license plate recognition task based on a video streamed in limited networking conditions. In: 4th international conference on multimedia communications, services and security, Krakow, PolandGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lu Z, Lin W, Boon CS, Kato S, Ong EP, Yao S (2007) Perceptual quality evaluation on periodic frame-dropping video. In: ICIP (3). IEEE, pp 433–436Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    McCullagh P, Nelders J (2009) Generalized linear models, 2nd edn. Chapman & Hall, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ou YF, Liu T, Zhao Z, Ma Z, Wang Y (2008) Modeling the impact of frame rate on perceptual quality of video. In: ICIP. IEEE, pp 689–692Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Teahyung L, Seshandrinathan K, Caviedes J (2010) Framework for the design of resolution scalable no-reference quality metrics. In: The fifth international workshop on video processing and quality metrics for consumer electronics VPQM-2010Google Scholar
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
    Video Quality Expert Group (2010) Accessed May 2010
  15. 15.
    VQEG (2009) Test plan for evaluation of video quality models for use with high definition TV contentGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucjan Janowski
    • 1
  • Piotr Romaniak
    • 1
  • Zdzisław Papir
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of TelecommunicationsAGH University of Science and TechnologyKrakówPoland

Personalised recommendations