Advertisement

Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 63, Issue 3, pp 757–790 | Cite as

Vector watermarking scheme for GIS vector map management

  • Suk-Hwan Lee
  • Ki-Ryong KwonEmail author
Article

Abstract

A geographical information services (GIS) can be provided on the basis of a digital map, which is the fundamental form of representation of data in a GIS. Because the process of producing a digital map is considerably complex and the maintenance of a digital map requires substantial monetary and human resources, a digital map is very valuable and requires copyright protection. A digital map consists of a number of layers that are categorized in terms of topographical features and landmarks. Therefore, any unauthorized person can forge either an entire digital map or the feature layers of the map. In this paper, we present a robust and invisible watermarking scheme based on polylines and polygons for the copyright protection of a GIS digital map. The proposed scheme clusters all polylines and polygons in the feature layers of the map on the basis of the polyline length and the polygon area. And then a watermark is embedded in GIS vector data on the basis of the distribution of polyline length and polygon area in each group by moving all vertices in polylines and polygons within a specified tolerance. Experimental results confirm that the proposed scheme is more robust against geometric attacks, such as rotation, scaling, and translation (RST) transformations, data addition, cropping, breaking, and filleting attacks, and layer attacks with rearrangement and cropping, when compared with conventional schemes. Moreover, the scheme also satisfies data position accuracy.

Keywords

GIS vector map Digital watermarking Copyright protection GIS data management 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Pukyong National University Research Abroad Fund in 2011 (PS-2010-24).

References

  1. 1.
    Abolfathi M, Amirfattahi R (2010) Design and implementation of a reliable and authenticated satellite image communication. Telecommun Syst. doi: 10.1007/s11235-010-9366-3 Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Airport Integrated Mapping System (AIMS) (2003) CADD & GIS Data Accuracy Specification. SJC-ACM-AIMS-2611Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bourke P (2011) Calculating the area and centroid of a polygon. http://local.wasp.uwa.edu.au/pbourke/geometry/polyarea/. Accessed 20 Feb 2011
  4. 4.
    Buckey DJ (2011) Bgis introduction to GIS. http://bgis.sanbi.org/gis-primer/index.htm. Accessed on Jul 2011
  5. 5.
    Differential geometry of curves. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/. Accessed 20 Feb 2011
  6. 6.
    Doncel VR, Nikolaidis N, Pitas I (2007) An optimal detector structure for the fourier descriptors domain watermarking of 2D vector graphics. IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 13(5):851–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Geographic Information Technology Training Alliance (GITTA) (20011) Position accuracy. http://www.gitta.info/MetaDataQual/en/multimedia/PositAccuracy.pdf. Accessed on Jul 2011
  8. 8.
    Kang HI, Kim KI, Han SS (2001) Watermarking techniques using the drawing exchange format (DXF) file. In: Proc. of the 2001 multimedia and security workshop on multimedia and security, Ottawa Canada, pp 19–22Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kim J (2010) Vector map digital watermarking using angles. In: Sixth international conference on networked computing and advanced information management (NCM2010), pp 417–423Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kim J-H, Lee S-H, Kwon K-R (2011) A satellite image watermarking scheme based on perspective distance. In: 17th Korea-Japan joint workshop on frontiers of computer vision (FCV), pp 1–4Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kreyszig E (1991) Differential geometry. Dover Publications, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee S-H, Kwon K-R (2007) A Watermarking for 3D-Mesh using the patch CEGIs. Digit Signal Process 17(2):396–413MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lee S-H, Kwon K-R (2008) Mesh watermarking based projection onto two convex sets. Multimedia Syst 13(5–6):323–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lee S-H, Kwon K-R (2010) CAD drawing watermarking scheme. Digit Signal Process 20(5):1379–1399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    López C (2002) Watermarking of digital geospatial datasets: a review of technical, legal and copyright issues. Int J Geogr Inf Sci 16(6):589–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Luo J, Joshi D, Yu J, Gallagher A (2010) Geotagging in multimedia and computer vision-A survey. Multimed Tools Appl 51(1):187–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    National Geographic Information Institute. http://www.ngii.go.kr/eng/index.do. Accessed 20 Feb 2011
  18. 18.
    Niu X, Shao C, Wang X (2006) A survey of digital vector map watermarking. IJICIC 2(6):1301–1316Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ohbuchi R (2002) Robust watermarking of vector digital maps. In: Proc. of the IEEE international conference on multimedia and Expo, vol 1. Lausanne, Switzerland, pp 577–580Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ohbuchi R, Ueda H, Endoh S (2003) Watermarking 2D vector maps in the mesh-spectral domain. In: International conference on shape modeling and applications, Seoul, Korea, pp 216–228Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Park KT, Kim KI, Kang HI, Han SS (2002) Digital geographical map watermarking using polyline interpolation. In: PCM ’02: Proceedings of the third IEEE pacific rim conference on multimedia. Springer, London, UK, pp 58–65Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Peihong J, Yunzhen C, Jinsong M, Dakui Z (2006) Digital watermark-based security technology for Geo-spatial graphics data. Chin Geogr Sci 16(3):276–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Purna Kumaria B, Subramanyam Rallabandi VP (2008) Modified patchwork-based watermarking scheme for satellite imagery. Signal Process 88(4):891–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sakamoto M, Matsumura Y, Takashima Y (2000) A scheme of digital watermarking for geographical map data. In: Symposium on cryptography & information security, Okinawa, Japan, pp 26–28Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schulz G, Vogit M (2004) A high capacity watermarking system for digital maps. In: Proc. of the multimedia and security workshop on multimedia and security, Magdeburg, Germany, pp 180–186Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shao CY, Wang HL, Niu XM, Wang XT (2006) A shape-preserving method for watermarking 2d vector maps based on statistic detection. IEICE Trans Inf Syst E89-D(3):1290–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Solachidis V, Pitas I (2004) Watermarking polygonal lines using fourier descriptors. IEEE Comput Graph Appl 24(3):44–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vogit M, Busch C (2002) Watermarking 2D-vector data for geographical information systems. In: Proc. of the SPIE, security and watermarking of multimedia content, vol 4675. San Jose, USA, pp 621–628Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vogit M, Busch C (2003) Feature-based Watermarking of 2D-Vector Data. In: Proc. of the SPIE, security and watermarking of multimedia content, vol 5020. SantaClara, USA, pp 359–366Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang C, Peng Z, Peng Y, Yu L, Wang J, Zhao Q (2010) Watermarking geographical data on spatial topological relations. Multimed Tools Appl. doi: 10.1007/s11042-010-0536-9 Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yan H, Li J, Wen H (2010) A key points-based blind watermarking approach for vector geospatial data. Comput Environ Urban Syst 35(6):485–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zafeiriou S, Tefas A, Pitas I (2005) Blind robust watermarking schemes for copyright protection of 3D mesh objects. IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 11(5):596–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhang D, Qian D, Han P (2007) A new attributes-priority matching watermarking algorithm satisfying topological conformance for vector map. In: Third international conference on intelligent information hiding and multimedia signal processing, IIHMSP, vol 2, pp 469–47Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zhang L, Yan D, Jiang S, Shi T (2010) New robust watermarking algorithm for vector data. Wuhan Univ J Nat Sci 15(5):403–407MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhu CQ, Yang CS, Wang QS (2008) A watermarking algorithm for vector geospatial data based on integer wavelet transform. Int Arch Photogramm Remote Sens Spat Inf Sci 37(B4):15–18Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zimmer R (2002) In line with GIS: testing the spatial accuracy of GIS data. Prof Surv 22(1). http://www.profsurv.com/magazine/article.aspx?i=841. Accessed to 20 Feb 2011

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Information SecurityTongmyong UniversityBusanRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of IT Convergence and Application EngineeringPukyong National UniversityBusanRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations