Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 63, Issue 3, pp 757–790 | Cite as

Vector watermarking scheme for GIS vector map management

  • Suk-Hwan Lee
  • Ki-Ryong KwonEmail author


A geographical information services (GIS) can be provided on the basis of a digital map, which is the fundamental form of representation of data in a GIS. Because the process of producing a digital map is considerably complex and the maintenance of a digital map requires substantial monetary and human resources, a digital map is very valuable and requires copyright protection. A digital map consists of a number of layers that are categorized in terms of topographical features and landmarks. Therefore, any unauthorized person can forge either an entire digital map or the feature layers of the map. In this paper, we present a robust and invisible watermarking scheme based on polylines and polygons for the copyright protection of a GIS digital map. The proposed scheme clusters all polylines and polygons in the feature layers of the map on the basis of the polyline length and the polygon area. And then a watermark is embedded in GIS vector data on the basis of the distribution of polyline length and polygon area in each group by moving all vertices in polylines and polygons within a specified tolerance. Experimental results confirm that the proposed scheme is more robust against geometric attacks, such as rotation, scaling, and translation (RST) transformations, data addition, cropping, breaking, and filleting attacks, and layer attacks with rearrangement and cropping, when compared with conventional schemes. Moreover, the scheme also satisfies data position accuracy.


GIS vector map Digital watermarking Copyright protection GIS data management 



This work was supported by the Pukyong National University Research Abroad Fund in 2011 (PS-2010-24).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Information SecurityTongmyong UniversityBusanRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of IT Convergence and Application EngineeringPukyong National UniversityBusanRepublic of Korea

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