Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 66, Issue 2, pp 247–266 | Cite as

A practical design of high-volume steganography in digital video files

Article

Abstract

In this research, we consider exploiting the large volume of audio/video data streams in compressed video clips/files for effective steganography. By observing that most of the distributed video files employ H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC) and MPEG Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) for video/audio compression, we examine the coding features in these data streams to determine appropriate data for modification so that the reliable high-volume information hiding can be achieved. Such issues as the perceptual quality, compressed bit-stream length, payload of embedding, effectiveness of extraction and efficiency of execution will be taken into consideration. First, the effects of using different coding features are investigated separately and three embedding profiles, i.e. High, Medium and Low, which indicate the amount of payload, will then be presented. The High profile is used to embed the maximum amount of hidden information when the high payload is the only major concern in the target application. The Medium profile is recommended since it is designed to achieve a good balance among several requirements. The Low profile is an efficient implementation for faster information embedding. The performances of these three profiles are reported and the suggested Medium profile can hide more than 10% of the compressed video file size in common Flash Video (FLV) files.

Keywords

Steganography H.264/AVC MPEG AAC Information hiding 

References

  1. 1.
    Bhaumik AK, Choi M, Robles RJ, Balitanas MO (2009) Data hiding in video. Int J Database Theory ApplGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Budhia U, Kundur D, Zourntos T (2006) Digital video steganalysis exploiting statistical visibility in the temporal domain. IEEE Trans Inf Forensic Secur 1(4):502–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fang DY, Chang LW (2006) Data hiding for digital video with phase of motion vector. In: IEEE international symposium on circuits and systemsGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kapotas SK, Varsaki EE, Skodras AN (2007) Data hiding in H. 264 encoded video sequences. In: IEEE 9th workshop on multimedia signal processing, pp 373–376Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kirbiz S, Lemma AN, Celik MU, Katzenbeisser S (2007) Decode-time forensic watermarking of AAC bitstreams. IEEE Trans Inf Forensics Secur 2(4):683–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Liu Z, Lang H, Niu X, Yang YX (2004) A robust video watermarking in motion vectors. In: International conference on signal processing, pp 2358–2361Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wang HX, Li YN, Lu ZM, Sun SH (2005) Compressed domain video watermarking in motion vector. In: Knowledge-based intelligent information and engineering systems. Springer, New York, pp 580–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Westfeld A (2001) F5—a steganographic algorithm. In: Information hiding. Springer, New York, pp 289–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wu M, Liu B (2003) Data hiding in image and video: part I—fundamental issues and solutions. IEEE Trans Image Process 12(6):685–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wu M, Yu H, Liu B (2003) Data hiding in image and video: part II—designs and applications. IEEE Trans Image Process 12(6):696–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Xu C, Ping X, Zhang T (2006) Steganography in compressed video stream. In: First international conference on innovative computing, information and control. IEEE, Piscataway, pp 269–272Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yang G, Li J, He Y, Kang Z (2010) An information hiding algorithm based on intra-prediction modes and matrix coding for H.264/AVC video stream. AEU-Int J Electron CommunGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and Information EngineeringNational Central UniversityJhongliRepublic of China

Personalised recommendations