Advertisement

Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 58, Issue 2, pp 293–331 | Cite as

A core ontology on events for representing occurrences in the real world

  • Ansgar Scherp
  • Thomas Franz
  • Carsten Saathoff
  • Steffen Staab
Article

Abstract

Events are central aspect of many semantic ambient media applications such as surveillance, smart homes, automobiles, and others. Existing models for events typically do not follow a systematic development approach, are conceptually narrow with respect to event features, and their semantics is often ambiguous. This makes the communication between and integration of different event-based components and event-based semantic ambient media applications a challenging task. In this paper, we present the Event-Model-F, a formal model of events based on the foundational ontology DOLCE+DnS Ultralite (DUL). The Event-Model-F provides comprehensive support to represent time and space, objects and persons, mereological, causal, and correlative relationships between events, and different interpretations of the same event. It is developed following a pattern-oriented ontology design approach and can be easily extended by domain specific ontologies. We introduce the design and implementation of an application programming interface that allows for easy integration of the Event-Model-F in arbitrary applications. The use of the Event-Model-F is demonstrated at the example of a socio-technical system of emergency response and implemented in the SemaPlorer+ + application for creating and sharing event descriptions.

Keywords

Events Models Principles Pattern-oriented ontology design Core ontologies 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research has been co-funded by the EU in FP6 in the X-Media project (026978) and FP7 in the WeKnowIt project (215453). We kindly thank Peter Whitwam and Keith Bradley from the Emergency Planning Team of the City Council of Sheffield, UK for the discussions on emergency planning and emergency response and the requirements and feedback on the SemaPlorer+ + application. We thank our student Daniel Schmeiß for his support in implementing the Event-Model-F API and SemaPlorer+ + application.

References

  1. 1.
    Anicic D, Brelage C, Etzion O, Stojanovic N (2008) Complex event processing for the future internet. http://icep-fis08.fzi.de/
  2. 2.
    Arndt R, Troncy R, Staab S, Hardman L, Vacura M (2007) COMM: designing a well-founded multimedia ontology for the web. In: International semantic web conference. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Auer S, Lehmann J, Hellmann S (2009) LinkedGeoData: adding a spatial dimension to the web of data. In: International semantic web conference. Springer, Berlin, pp 731–746. ISBN 978-3-642-04929-3. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-04930-9_46
  4. 4.
    Baader F, Calvanese D, McGuinness DL, Nardi D, Patel-Schneider PF (eds) (2003) The description logic handbook: theory, implementation, and applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-78176-0zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baumgartner N, Retschitzegger W (2006) A survey of upper ontologies for situation awareness. In: Knowledge sharing and collaborative engineering. St. Thomas, VI, USA. ACTA Press, Calgary, pp 1–9Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baumgartner N, Retschitzegger W, Schwinger W (2008) A software architecture for ontology-driven situation awareness. In: Applied computing. ACM, New York, pp 2326–2330. ISBN 978-1-59593-753-7. doi: 10.1145/1363686.1364237
  7. 7.
    Bizer C, Lehmann J, Kobilarov G, Auer S, Becker C, Cyganiak R, Hellmann S (2009) DBpedia: a crystallization point for the web of data. Web Semantics 7(3):154–165. ISSN 1570-8268. doi: 10.1016/j.websem.2009.07.002 Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Borgo S, Masolo C (2009) Foundational choices in DOLCE. In: Handbook on ontologies, 2nd edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Broda K, Clark K, Miller R, Russo A (2009) Sage: a logical agent-based environment monitoring and control system. In: Tscheligi M, de Ruyter B, Markopoulos P, Wichert R, Mirlacher T, Meschtscherjakov A, Reitberger W (eds) Ambient intelligence, Salzburg, Austria. LNCS, vol 5859. Springer, New York, pp 112–117. ISBN 978-3-642-05407-5Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Casati R, Varzi A (2006) Events. Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/events
  11. 11.
    Cervesato I, Franceschet M, Montanari A (1999) A guided tour through some extensions of the event calculus. Comput Intell 16:200MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen H, Finin TW, Joshi A (2003) Using OWL in a pervasive computing broker. In: Ontologies in agent systems; Melbourne, Australia. CEUR workshop proceedings, vol 73, pp 9–16. CEUR-WS.org
  13. 13.
    Chen H, Joshi A (2004) The SOUPA ontology for pervasive computing. Birkhauser, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Doerr M, Ore C-E, Stead S (2007) The CIDOC conceptual reference model: a new standard for knowledge sharing. In: Conceptual modeling. Australian Computer Society, Canberra, pp 51–56. ISBN 978-1-920682-64-4Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ekin A, Tekalp AM, Mehrotra R (2004) Integrated semantic-syntactic video modeling for search and browsing. IEEE Trans Multimedia 6(6):839–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fellbaum C (ed) (1998) WordNet: an electronic lexical database. MIT Press, CambridgezbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Francois ARJ, Nevatia R, Hobbs J, Bolles RC (2005) VERL: an ontology framework for representing and annotating video events. IEEE MultiMedia 12(4):76–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Franz T, Staab S, Arndt R (2007) The X-COSIM integration framework for a seamless semantic desktop. In: Knowledge capture. ACM, New York, pp 143–150. ISBN 978-1-59593-643-1. doi: 10.1145/1298406.1298433
  19. 19.
    Gangemi A (2008) Norms and plans as unification criteria for social collectives. AAMAS 17(1):70–112. ISSN 1387-2532. doi: 10.1007/s10458-008-9038-9 Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gangemi A, Guarino N, Masolo C, Oltramari A, Schneider L (2002) Sweetening ontologies with DOLCE. In: International conference on knowledge engineering and knowledge management. London, UK. Springer, Berlin, pp 166–181. ISBN 3-540-44268-5Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gangemi A, Mika P (2003) Understanding the semantic web through descriptions and situations. In: CoopIS/DOA/ODBASE, pp 689–706Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    IPTC International Press Telecommunications Council, London, UK (2008) EventML. http://iptc.org/
  23. 23.
    Itkonen E. Causality in linguistic theory. Indiana University Press, BloomingtonGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kokar MM, Matheus CJ, Baclawski K (2009) Ontology-based situation awareness. Information Fusion 10(1):83–98. ISSN 1566-2535. doi: 10.1016/j.inffus.2007.01.004 Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lin F (1996) Embracing causality in specifying the indeterminate effects of actions. In: AAAI/IAAI, vol 1, pp 670–676Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lin F (2008) Situtation calculus. In: Handbook of knowledge representation. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lombard L (1986) Events: a metaphysical study. Routledge & Kegan Paul, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Masolo C, Borgo S, Gangemi A, Guarino N, Oltramari A (2003) WonderWeb deliverable D18 ontology library; IST WonderWeb project. http://wonderweb.semanticweb.org/deliverables/documents/D18.pdf
  29. 29.
    Matheus C, Kokar M, Baclawski K, Letkowski J, Call C, Hinman M, Salerno J, Boulware D (2005) Sawa: an assistant for higher-level fusion and situation awareness. In: Multisensor, multisource information fusion: architectures, algorithms, and applications. Orlando, USA. SPIE, Bellingham, pp 75–85Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Matheus CJ, Baclawski K, Kokar MM, Letkowski J (2005) Using SWRL and OWL to capture domain knowledge for a situation awareness application applied to a supply logistics scenario. In: Rules and rule markup languages for the semantic web. LNCS, vol 3791. Springer, New York, pp 130–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Matheus CJ, Kokar MM, Baclawski K (2003) A core ontology for situation awareness; Cairns, Australia. In: Information fusion, pp 545–552Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Matheus CJ, Kokar MM, Baclawski K, Letkowski J (2005) An application of semantic web technologies to situation awareness. In: International semantic web conference. LNCS, vol 3729. Springer, New York, pp 944–958Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mueller ET (2008) Event calculus. In: Handbook of knowledge representation. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mühl G, Fiege L, Pietzuch P (2006) Distributed event-based systems. Springer, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mylonas P, Avrithis Y, Kalantidis Y, Spyrou E, Tolias G, Giannakidou E, Ireson N, Smrz P (2009) D2.1.2 intelligent media analysis tools. Technical report. http://www.weknowit.eu/sites/default/files/D2.1.2.pdf
  36. 36.
    Nevatia R, Hobbs J, Bolles B (2004) An ontology for video event representation. In: Computer vision and pattern recognition. Washington, DC, USA. IEEE, New York, p 119. ISBN 0-7695-2158-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Oberle D (2006) Semantic management of middleware. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Oberle D, Ankolekar A, Hitzler P, Cimiano P, Sintek M, Kiesel M, Mougouie B, Baumann S, Vembu S, Romanelli M, Buitelaar P, Engel R, Sonntag D, Reithinger N, Loos B, Zorn H-P, Micelli V, Porzel R, Schmidt C, Weiten M, Burkhardt F, Zhou J (2007) DOLCE ergo SUMO: on foundational & domain models in the SmartWeb integrated ontology. Web Semantics 5(3):156–174. ISSN 1570-8268. doi: 10.1016/j.websem.2007.06.002
  39. 39.
    Oberle D, Lamparter S, Grimm S, Vrandečić D, Staab S, Gangemi A (2006) Towards ontologies for formalizing modularization and communication in large software systems. Applied Ontologies 1(2):163–202. ISSN 1570-5838Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Patel-Schneider PF, Hayes P, Horrocks I (2004) OWL web ontology language semantics and abstract syntax. Technical report, W3C. http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-semantics/
  41. 41.
    Pease A, Niles I, Li J (2002) The suggested upper merged ontology: a large ontology for the semantic web and its applications. In: Ontologies and the semantic web. AAAI, Menlo ParkGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Quinton A (1979) Objects and events. Mind 88(350):197–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Raimond Y, Abdallah S (2007) The event ontology. http://motools.sf.net/event
  44. 44.
    Rozsnyai S, Schiefer J, Schatten A (2007) Concepts and models for typing events for event-based systems. In: Distributed event-based systems. ACM, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Saathoff C, Schenk S, Scherp A (2008) KAT: the K-Space annotation tool. In: SAMT demo and poster session. Koblenz, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Saathoff C, Scherp A (2010) Unlocking the semantics of multimedia presentations in the web with the multimedia metadata ontology. In: World Wide Web conference, Raleigh, NC, USA. ACM, New York, pp 831–840Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sahana Software Foundation (2010) Sahana: home of the free and open source disaster management system. http://sahanafoundation.org/
  48. 48.
    Schenk S, Saathoff C, Staab S, Scherp A (2009) Semaplorer: interactive semantic exploration of data and media based on a federated cloud infrastructure. Web Semantics 7(4):298–304. ISSN 1570-8268. doi: 10.1016/j.websem.2009.09.006
  49. 49.
    Schenk S, Staab S (2008) Networked graphs: a declarative mechanism for SPARQL rules, SPARQL views and RDF data integration on the Web. In: World Wide Web conference. Beijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Scherp A (2009) Research on events in computer science. In: Semantic ambient media intelligence. Salzburg, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Scherp A, Agaram S, Jain R (2008) Event-centric media management. In: SPIE, vol 6820Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Scherp A, Franz T, Saathoff C, Staab S (2009) F–a model of events based on the foundational ontology DOLCE+DnS ultralight. In: Conference on knowledge capture. ACM, New York, pp 137–144. ISBN 978-1-60558-658-8. doi: 10.1145/1597735.1597760
  53. 53.
    Scherp A, Papadopoulos S, Kritikos A, Schwagereit F, Saathoff C, Franz T, Schmeiss D, Staab S, Schenk S, Bonifacio M (2009) D5.2.1 prototypical knowledge management methodology. Technical report. http://www.weknowit.eu/sites/default/files/D5.2.1.pdf
  54. 54.
    Shafer G (1998) Causal logic. In: European conference on artificial intelligence. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Shipley B (2002) Cause and correlation in biology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sinclair P, Addis M, Choi F, Doerr M, Lewis P, Martinez K (2006) The use of CRM core in multimedia annotation. In: Semantic web annotations for multimediaGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Smart PR (2005) Knowledge-intensive fusion for situational awareness: band sultan dam failure scenario. Technical report, School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton. URL http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/11609/
  58. 58.
    Storf H, Kleinberger T, Becker M, Schmitt M, Bomarius F, Prueckner S (2009) An event-driven approach to activity recognition in ambient assisted living. In: Tscheligi M, de Ruyter B, Markopoulos P, Wichert R, Mirlacher T, Meschtscherjakov A, Reitberger W (eds) Ambient intelligence, Salzburg, Austria. LNCS, vol 5859. Springer, New York, pp 123–132. ISBN 978-3-642-05407-5Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Strang T, Linnhoff-Popien C (2004) A context modeling survey. In: Advanced context modelling, reasoning and management. Nottingham, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    The National E9-1-1 Implementation Coordination Office, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, USA (2009) A national plan for migrating to ip-enabled 9-1-1 systems. http://911.gov/pdf/National_NG911_Migration_Plan_FINAL.pdf
  61. 61.
    Ultra Electronics Ltd., UK (2010) Aims: atlas incident management system. http://www.atlasops.com/products/aims.php
  62. 62.
    University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA (2009) 911.gov: community response grids, e-government, and emergencies. http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/911gov/
  63. 63.
    Ushahidi.com (2010) Ushahidi: crowdsorcing crisis information. http://www.ushahidi.com/
  64. 64.
    U.S. Department of Transportation (2010) 911.gov—the national 911 office. http://911.gov/
  65. 65.
    VectorCommand Ltd., UK (2010) Emergency command system. http://www.emergencycommandsystem.com/products/command-support-system/
  66. 66.
    Wang X, Mamadgi S, Thekdi A, Kelliher A, Sundaram H (2007) Eventory—an event based media repository. In: Semantic computing. Washington, DC, USA. IEEE, New York, pp 95–104. ISBN 0-7695-2997-6Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wang XH, Zhang DQ, Gu T, Pung HK (2004) Ontology based context modeling and reasoning using OWL. In: Pervasive computing and communications workshops. Washington, DC, USA. IEEE, New York, p 18. ISBN 0-7695-2106-1Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Waters J, Brooks R (2009) The distribution element: the basic steps to package and address your emergency informations (an oasis emergency management technical committee white paper). OASIS Emergency Management Technical Committee. http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/download.php/34264/EDXL-DE-Basics-White
  69. 69.
    Westermann U, Jain R (2007) Toward a common event model for multimedia applications. IEEE MultiMedia 14(1):19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wu PF, Preece J, Shneiderman B, Jaeger PT, Qu Y (2007) Community response grids for older adults: motivations, usability, and sociabilityGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Yau SS, Liu J (2006) Hierarchical situation modeling and reasoning for pervasive computing. In: Software technologies for future embedded and ubiquitous systems. Washington, DC, USA. IEEE, New York, pp 5–10. ISBN 0-7695-2560-1Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Yoshioka S, Hirano Y, Kajita S, Mase K, Maekawa T (2009) Semi-automatic story creation system in ubiquitous sensor environment. In: Tscheligi M, de Ruyter B, Markopoulos P, Wichert R, Mirlacher T, Meschtscherjakov A, Reitberger W (eds) Ambient intelligence, Salzburg, Austria. LNCS, vol 5859. Springer, New York, pp 106–111. ISBN 978-3-642-05407-5Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ansgar Scherp
    • 1
  • Thomas Franz
    • 1
  • Carsten Saathoff
    • 1
  • Steffen Staab
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Koblenz-LandauKoblenzGermany

Personalised recommendations