Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 56, Issue 1, pp 9–34 | Cite as

Social multimedia: highlighting opportunities for search and mining of multimedia data in social media applications

Article

Abstract

In recent years, various Web-based sharing and community services such as Flickr and YouTube have made a vast and rapidly growing amount of multimedia content available online. Uploaded by individual participants, content in these immense pools of content is accompanied by varied types of metadata, such as social network data or descriptive textual information. These collections present, at once, new challenges and exciting opportunities for multimedia research. This article presents an approach for “social multimedia” applications. The approach is based on the experience of building a number of successful applications that are based on mining multimedia content analysis in social multimedia context.

Keywords

Social media Flickr Youtube Multimedia HCI Data mining Multimedia applications Evaluation 

References

  1. 1.
    Abbasi R, Chernov S, Nejdl W, Paiu R, Staab S (2009) Exploiting flickr tags and groups for finding landmark photos. In: ECIR ’09: proceedings of the 31th European conference on ir research on advances in information retrieval. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 654–661Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adams B, Phung D, Venkatesh S (2006) Extraction of social context and application to personal multimedia exploration. In: MULTIMEDIA ’06: proceedings of the 14th annual ACM international conference on multimedia. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 987–996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ahern S, Eckles D, Good N, King S, Naaman M, Nair R (2007) Over-exposed? privacy patterns and considerations in online and mobile photo sharing. In: CHI ’07: proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems. ACM, New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ahern S, King S, Naaman M, Nair R (2007) Summarization of online image collections via implicit feedback. In WWW ’07: proceedings of the 16th international conference on World Wide Web. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 1325–1326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ahern S, Naaman M, Nair R, Yang JH-I (2007) World explorer: visualizing aggregate data from unstructured text in geo-referenced collections. In JCDL ’07: proceedings of the seventh ACM/IEEE-CS joint conference on digital libraries. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ames M, Naaman M (2007) Why we tag: motivations for annotation in mobile and online media. In: CHI ’07: proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems. ACM, New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baeza-Yates R, Ribeiro-Neto B (1999) Modern information retrieval. Addison WesleyGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Becker H, Naaman M, Gravano L (2009) Event identification in social media. In: WebDB ’09: proceedings of the 12th international workshop on the web and databases: colocated with ACM SIGMODGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Becker H, Naaman M, Gravano L (2010) Learning similarity metrics for event identification in social media. In: WSDM’10: proceedings of the third ACM international conference on web search and data mining. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beerends JG, Stemerdink JA (1992) A perceptual audio quality measure based on a psychoacoustic sound representation. J Audio Eng Soc 40(12):963–978Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Berg TL, Forsyth DA (2007) Automatic ranking of iconic images. Technical report, U.C. BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Beyer KS, Goldstein J, Ramakrishnan R, Shaft U (1999) When is “nearest neighbor” meaningful? In ICDT ’99: proceedings of the 7th international conference on database theory. Springer-Verlag, London, UK, pp 217–235Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Boll S (2007) Multitube–where web 2.0 and multimedia could meet. IEEE Multimed 14(1):9–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Boll S, Bulterman D, Jain R, Chua T-S, Lienhart R, Wilcox L, Davis M, Venkatesh S (2004) Between context-aware media capture and multimedia content analysis: where do we find the promised land? In MULTIMEDIA ’04: proceedings of the 12th annual ACM international conference on multimedia. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 868–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Boll S, Sandhaus P, Scherp A, Thieme S (2006) Metaxa—context- and content-driven metadata enhancement for personal photo books. In: Advances in multimedia modeling, pp 332–343Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Boll S, Sandhaus P, Scherp A, Westermann U (2007) Semantics, content, and structure of many for the creation of personal photo albums. In: MULTIMEDIA ’07: proceedings of the 15th international conference on multimedia. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 641–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Boutemedjet S, Ziou D (2008) A graphical model for context-aware visual content recommendation. IEEE Trans Multimedia 10(1):52–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bulterman DCA (2004) Is it time for a moratorium on metadata? IEEE MultiMed 11(4):10–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cao L, Luo J, Huang TS (2008) Annotating photo collections by label propagation according to multiple similarity cues. In: MM ’08: proceeding of the 16th ACM international conference on multimedia. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 121–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chang E (2008) Organizing multimedia data socially. In: CIVR ’08: proceedings of the 2008 international conference on content-based image and video retrieval. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 569–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chang EY (2005) Extent: fusing context, content, and semantic ontology for photo annotation. In: CVDB ’05: proceedings of the 2nd international workshop on computer vision meets databases. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 5–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chen W-C, Battestini A, Gelfand N, Setlur V (2009) Visual summaries of popular landmarks from community photo collections. In: MM ’09: proceedings of the seventeen ACM international conference on multimedia. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 789–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Choudhury MD, Sundaram H, John A, Seligmann DD (2009) What makes conversations interesting? Themes, participants and consequences of conversations in online social media. In: WWW ’09: proceeding of the 18th international conference on World Wide Web. ACM, New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Christel MG, Hauptmann AG, Wactlar HD (2002) Collages as dynamic summaries for news video. In: MULTIMEDIA ’02: proceedings of the 10th international conference on multimedia. ACM, pp 561–569Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Crandall D, Backstrom L, Huttenlocher D, Kleinberg J (2009) Mapping the world’s photos. In: WWW ’09: proceeding of the 18th international conference on World Wide Web. ACM, New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Creswell JW (2002) Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches, 2nd edn. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, USAGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cunningham SJ, Nichols DM (2008) How people find videos. In: JCDL ’08: proceedings of the Eigth ACM/IEEE joint conference on digital libraries. ACM, New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Das M, Farmer J, Gallagher A, Loui A (2008) Event-based location matching for consumer image collections. In: CIVR ’08: proceedings of the 2008 international conference on content-based image and video retrieval. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 339–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Datta R, Joshi D, Li J, Wang JZ (2008) Image retrieval: ideas, influences, and trends of the new age. ACM Comput Surv 40(2):1–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Davis M, King S, Good N, Sarvas R (2004) From context to content: leveraging context to infer media metadata. In: Proceedings of the 12th international conference on multimedia (MM2004). ACM, pp 188–195Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Davis M, Smith M, Stentiford F, Bambidele A, Canny J, Good N, King S, Janakiraman R (2006) Using context and similarity for face and location identification. In: Proceedings of the IS&T/SPIE 18th annual symposium on electronic imaging science and technologyGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dubinko M, Kumar R, Magnani J, Novak J, Raghavan P, Tomkins A (2006) Visualizing tags over time. In: WWW ’06: proceedings of the 15th international conference on World Wide Web. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 193–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Duda RO, Hart PE, Stork DG (2000) Pattern classification, 2nd edn. Wiley-InterscienceGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Elliott B, Özsoyoglu ZM (2008) Annotation suggestion and search for personal multimedia objects on the web. In: CIVR ’08: proceedings of the 2008 international conference on content-based image and video retrieval. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Flickr.com (2010) http://www.flickr.com
  36. 36.
    Graham A, Garcia-Molina H, Paepcke A, Winograd T (2002) Time as essence for photo browsing through personal digital libraries. In: JCDL ’02: proceedings of the second ACM/IEEE-CS joint conference on digital librariesGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Haitsma J, Kalker T (2003) A highly robust audio fingerprinting system with an efficient search strategy. J New Music Res 32(2):211–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hao Q, Cai R, Wang XJ, Yang JM, Pang Y, Zhang L (2009) Generating location overviews with images and tags by mining user-generated travelogues. In: MM ’09: proceedings of the seventeen ACM international conference on multimedia. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 801–804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jaffe A, Naaman M, Tassa T, Davis M (2006) Generating summaries and visualization for large collections of geo-referenced photographs. In: MIR ’06: proceedings of the 8th ACM international workshop on multimedia information retrieval. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 89–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jaimes A, Christel M, Gilles S, Sarukkai R, Ma W-Y (2005) Multimedia information retrieval: what is it, and why isn’t anyone using it? In: MIR ’05: proceedings of the 7th ACM SIGMM international workshop on multimedia information retrieval. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 3–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ji R, Xie X, Yao H, Ma W-Y (2009) Mining city landmarks from blogs by graph modeling. In: MM ’09: proceedings of the seventeen ACM international conference on multimedia. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 105–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jing F, Zhang L, Ma W-Y (2006) Virtualtour: an online travel assistant based on high quality images. In: Proceedings of the 14th international conference on multimedia (MM2005). ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 599–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Joshi D, Luo J (2008) Inferring generic activities and events from image content and bags of geo-tags. In: Proceedings of the 2008 international conference on content-based image and video retrieval. ACM, Niagara Falls, Canada, pp 37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kennedy LS, Chang S-F (2007) A reranking approach for context-based concept fusion in video indexing and retrieval. In: CIVR ’07: proceedings of the 6th ACM international conference on image and video retrieval. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 333–340Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kennedy LS, Naaman M (2008) Generating diverse and representative image search results for landmarks. In: WWW ’08: proceeding of the 17th international conference on World Wide Web. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 297–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kennedy L, Naaman M (2009) Less talk, more rock: automated organization of community-contributed collections of concert videos. In: WWW ’09: proceeding of the 18th international conference on World Wide Web. ACM, New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kennedy L, Chang S-F, Kozintsev I (2006) To search or to label? Predicting the performance of search-based automatic image classifiers. In: Proceedings of the 8th ACM international workshop on multimedia information retrieval, pp 249–258Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kennedy L, Naaman M, Ahern S, Nair R, Rattenbury T (2007) How flickr helps us make sense of the world: context and content in community-contributed media collections. In: Proceedings of the 15th international conference on multimedia (MM2007). ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 631–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lew MS, Sebe N, Djeraba C, Jain R (2006) Content-based multimedia information retrieval: state of the art and challenges. ACM TOMCCAP 2(1):1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Liu Y, Zhang D, Lu G, Ma W-Y (2009) A survey of content-based image retrieval with high-level semantics. Pattern Recogn. 40(1):262–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lowe DG (2004) Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints. Int J Comput Vis 60(2):91–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Luo J, Boutell M, Brown C (2006) Pictures are not taken in a vacuum—an overview of exploiting context for semantic scene content understanding. IEEE Signal Process Mag 23(2):101–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Manjunath BS, Ma WY (1996) Texture features for browsing and retrieval of image data. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 18(8):837–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mertens R, Farzan R, Brusilovsky P (2006) Social navigation in web lectures. In: HYPERTEXT ’06: proceedings of the seventeenth conference on hypertext and hypermedia. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 41–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Naaman M, Nair R (2008) ZoneTag’s collaborative tag suggestions: what is this person doing in my phone? IEEE Multimed 15(3):34–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Naaman M, Garcia-Molina H, Paepcke A, Yeh RB (2005) Leveraging context to resolve identity in photo albums. In: JCDL ’05: proceedings of the Fifth ACM/IEEE-CS joint conference on digital libraries. ACM PressGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Naaman M, Harada S, Wang Q, Garcia-Molina H, Paepcke A (2004) Context data in geo-referenced digital photo collections. In: Proceedings of the 12th international conference on multimedia (MM2004). ACMGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Naaman M, Nair R, Kaplun V (2008) Photos on the go: a mobile application case study. In: CHI ’08: proceeding of the twenty-sixth annual SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 1739–1748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Naaman M, Paepcke A, Garcia-Molina H (2003) From where to what: metadata sharing for digital photographs with geographic coordinates. In: 10th international conference on cooperative information systems (CoopIS)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Naaman M, Song YJ, Paepcke A, Garcia-Molina H (2004) Automatic organization for digital photographs with geographic coordinates. In:JCDL ’04: proceedings of the fourth ACM/IEEE-CS joint conference on digital librariesGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Naci SU, Hanjalic A (2007) Intelligent browsing of concert videos. In: MULTIMEDIA ’07: proceedings of the 15th international conference on multimedia. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 150–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Nair R, Reid N, Davis M (2005) Photo LOI: browsing multi-user photo collections. In: Proceedings of the 13th international conference on multimedia (MM2005). ACMGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Negoescu RA, Gatica-Perez D (2008) Analyzing flickr groups. In: CIVR ’08: proceedings of the 2008 international conference on content-based image and video retrieval. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 417–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Negoescu R-A, Adams B, Phung D, Venkatesh S, Gatica-Perez D (2009) Flickr hypergroups. In: MM ’09: proceedings of the seventeen ACM international conference on multimedia. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 813–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Nov O, Naaman M, Ye C (2008) What drives content tagging: the case of photos on flickr. In: CHI ’08: proceeding of the twenty-sixth annual SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 1097–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    O’Hare N, Smeaton AF (2009) Context-aware person identification in personal photo collections. IEEE Trans Multimedia 11(2):220–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    O’Hare N, Gurrin C, Jones GJF, Smeaton AF (2005) Combination of content analysis and context features for digital photograph retrieval. In: 2nd IEE European workshop on the integration of knowledge, semantic and digital media technologiesGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    O’Hare N, Gurrin C, Lee H, Murphy N, Smeaton AF, Jones GJF (2005) My digital photos: Where and when? In: Proceedings of the 13th international conference on multimedia (MM2005). ACMGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    O’Hare N, Lee H, Cooray S, Gurrin C, Jones G, Malobabic J, O’Connor N, Smeaton A, Uscilowski B (2006) MediAssist: using content-based analysis and context to manage personal photo collections. In: Image and video retrieval, pp 529–532Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Olsen DR Jr (2007) Evaluating user interface systems research. In: UIST ’07: proceedings of the 20th annual ACM symposium on user interface software and technology, pp 251–258Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Paillard B, Mabilleau P, Morissette S, Soumagne J (1992) PERCEVAL: perceptual evaluation of the quality of audio signals. J Audio Eng Soc 40(1/2):21–31Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Palmer S, Rosch E, Chase P (1981) Canonical perspective and the perception of objects. In: Long JB, Baddeley AD (eds) Attention and performance IX. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, N.J., pp 135–151Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pigeau A, Gelgon M (2004) Organizing a personal image collection with statistical model-based ICL clustering on spatio-temporal camera phone meta-data. J Vis Commun Image Represent 15(3):425–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Qi G-J, Hua X-S, Zhang H-J (2009) Learning semantic distance from community-tagged media collection. In: MM ’09: proceedings of the seventeen ACM international conference on multimedia. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 243–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rattenbury T, Good N, Naaman M (2007) Towards automatic extraction of event and place semantics from flickr tags. In: Proceedings of the thirtieth annual international ACM SIGIR conference on research and development in information retrieval. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 103–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Salovaara A, Jacucci G, Oulasvirta Timo Saari A, Kanerva P, Kurvinen E, Tiitta S (2006) Collective creation and sense-making of mobile media. In: CHI ’06: proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 1211–1220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Schmitz P (2006) Inducing ontology from flickr tags. In: Proceedings of the workshop on collaborative web tagging at WWW2006Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Setz AT, Snoek CGM (2009) Can social tagged images aid concept-based video search? In: ICME’09: proceedings of the 2009 IEEE international conference on multimedia and Expo. IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, USA, pp 1460–1463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Shamma DA, Shaw R, Shafton PL, Liu Y (2007) Watch what I watch: using community activity to understand content. In: MIR ’07: proceedings of the international workshop on workshop on multimedia information retrieval. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 275–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Shamma DA, Bastea-Forte M, Joubert N, Liu Y (2008) Enhancing online personal connections through the synchronized sharing of online video. In: CHI ’08: CHI ’08 extended abstracts on human factors in computing systems. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 2931–2936Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Shamma DA, Kennedy L, Churchill EF (2009) Tweet the debates: understanding community annotation of uncollected sources. In: WSM ’09: proceedings of the first SIGMM workshop on Social media. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 3–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Shamma DA, Kennedy L, Churchill E (2010) Statler: summarizing media through short-message services. In: CSCW ’10: proceedings of the 2010 ACM conference on computer supported cooperative work. ACM, New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Shaw R, Schmitz P (2006) Community annotation and remix: a research platform and pilot deployment. In: HCM ’06: proceedings of the 1st ACM international workshop on human-centered multimedia. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 89–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Shneiderman B (2008) COMPUTER SCIENCE: Science 2.0. Science 319(5868):1349–1350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Shrestha P, Weda H, Barbieri M, Sekulovski D (2006) Synchronization of multiple video recordings based on still camera flashes. In: MULTIMEDIA ’06: proceedings of the 14th international conference on multimedia. ACM, pp 137–140Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Shrestha P, Barbieri M, Weda H (2007) Synchronization of multi-camera video recordings based on audio. In: MULTIMEDIA ’07: proceedings of the 15th international conference on multimedia. ACM, pp 545–548Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sigurbjörnsson B, van Zwol R (2008) Flickr tag recommendation based on collective knowledge. In: WWW ’08: proceeding of the 17th international conference on World Wide Web. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 327–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Simon I, Snavely N, Seitz SM (2007) Scene summarization for online image collections. In: ICCV ’07: proceedings of the 11th IEEE international conference on computer vision.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sinha P, Jain R (2008) Classification and annotation of digital photos using optical context data. In: CIVR ’08: proceedings of the 2008 international conference on content-based image and video retrieval. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 309–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Smeulders AWM, Worring M, Santini S, Gupta A, Jain R (2000) Content-based image retrieval at the end of the early years. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 22(12):1349–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Snavely N, Garg R, Seitz SM, Szeliski R (2008) Finding paths through the world’s photos. In: SIGGRAPH ’08: proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Snoek CGM, Worring M, Smeulders AWM, Freiburg B (2007) The role of visual content and style for concert video indexing. In: IEEE international conference on multimedia and expo, pp 252–255, 2–5 July 2007Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Strickerand M, Orengo M (1995) Similarity of color images. In: Proc. SPIE storage and retrieval for image and video databases vol 2420, pp 381–392Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Syeda-Mahmood T, Ponceleon D (2001) Learning video browsing behavior and its application in the generation of video previews. In: MULTIMEDIA ’01: proceedings of the 9th ACM international conference on multimedia. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tang J, Yan S, Hong R, Qi G-J, Chua T-S (2009) Inferring semantic concepts from community-contributed images and noisy tags. In: MM ’09: proceedings of the seventeen ACM international conference on multimedia. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 223–232Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Thiede T, Treurniet WC, Bitto R, Schmidmer C, Sporer T, Beerends JG, Colomes C (2000) PEAQ-the ITU standard for objective measurement of perceived audio quality. J Audio Eng Soc 48(1/2):3–29Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Toyama K, Logan R, Roseway A (2003) Geographic location tags on digital images. In: Proceedings of the 11th international conference on multimedia (MM2003). ACM, pp 156–166Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Tsai C-M, Qamra A, Chang E (2005) Extent: inferring image metadata from context and content. In: IEEE International conference on multimedia and expoGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Uchihashi S, Foote J, Girgensohn A (1999) Video manga: generating semantically meaningful video summaries. In: MULTIMEDIA ’99: proceedings of the 7th international conference on multimedia. ACM, pp 383–392Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    van Houten Y, Naci U, Freiburg B, Eggermont R, Schuurman S, Hollander D, Reitsma J, Markslag M, Kniest J, Veenstra M, Hanjalic A (2005) The multimedian concert-video browser. In: IEEE international conference on multimedia and expo, 2005. ICME, pp 1561–1564, 6-6 July 2005Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wang A (2003) An industrial strength audio search algorithm. In: Proceedings of the international conference on music information retrievalGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Wang M, Yang K, Hua X-S, Zhang H-J (2009) Visual tag dictionary: interpreting tags with visual words. In: WSMC ’09: proceedings of the 1st workshop on web-scale multimedia corpus. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Westermann U, Jain R (2007) Toward a common event model for multimedia applications. IEEE Multimed 14(1):19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Wu Y, Chang EY, Tseng BL (2005) Multimodal metadata fusion using causal strength. In: Proceedings of the 13th international conference on multimedia (MM2005). ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 872–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Wu L, Hua X-S, Yu N, Ma W-Y, Li S (2008) Flickr distance. In: MM ’08: proceeding of the 16th ACM international conference on multimedia. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Wu L, Hoi SCH, Jin R, Zhu J, Yu N (2009) Distance metric learning from uncertain side information with application to automated photo tagging. In: MM ’09: proceedings of the seventeen ACM international conference on multimedia. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    YouTube (2010) http://youtube.com/
  108. 108.
    Zheng Y-T, Zhao M, Song Y, Adam H, Buddemeier U, Bissacco A, Brucher F, Chua T-S, Neven H (2009) Tour the world: building a web-scale landmark recognition engine. In: CVPR ’09: IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition, pp 1085–1092 Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Zheng Y-T, Zhao M, Song Y, Adam H, Buddemeier U, Bissacco A, Brucher F, Chua T-S, Neven H (2009) Tour the world: building a web-scale landmark recognition engine. In: CVPR workshops 2009: IEEE computer society conference on computer vision and pattern recognition workshops, 2009, pp 1085–1092Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Zunjarwad A, Sundaram H, Xie L (2007) Contextual wisdom: social relations and correlations for multimedia event annotation. In: Proceedings of the 15th international conference on multimedia, pp 615–624Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Communication and InformationRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations