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Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 39, Issue 1, pp 1–46 | Cite as

Methods for image authentication: a survey

  • Adil Haouzia
  • Rita NoumeirEmail author
Article

Abstract

Image authentication techniques have recently gained great attention due to its importance for a large number of multimedia applications. Digital images are increasingly transmitted over non-secure channels such as the Internet. Therefore, military, medical and quality control images must be protected against attempts to manipulate them; such manipulations could tamper the decisions based on these images. To protect the authenticity of multimedia images, several approaches have been proposed. These approaches include conventional cryptography, fragile and semi-fragile watermarking and digital signatures that are based on the image content. The aim of this paper is to present a survey and a comparison of emerging techniques for image authentication. Methods are classified according to the service they provide, that is strict or selective authentication, tamper detection, localization and reconstruction capabilities and robustness against different desired image processing operations. Furthermore, we introduce the concept of image content and discuss the most important requirements for an effective image authentication system design. Different algorithms are described and we focus on their comparison according to the properties cited above.

Keywords

Image authentication Image content Cryptography Fragile watermarking Semi-fragile watermarking Digital image signature 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electrical Engineering DepartmentÉcole de Technologie SupérieureMontrealCanada

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