Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 23–49

A multi-threshold online smoothing technique for variable rate multimedia streams

  • Roger Zimmermann
  • Cyrus Shahabi
  • Kun Fu
  • Mehrdad Jahangiri
Article

Abstract

Variable bit rate (VBR) compression for media streams allocates more bits to complex scenes and fewer bits to simple scenes. This results in a higher and more uniform visual and aural quality. The disadvantage of the VBR technique is that it results in bursty network traffic and uneven resource utilization when streaming media. In this study we propose an online media transmission smoothing technique that requires no a priori knowledge of the actual bit rate. It utilizes multi-level buffer thresholds at the client side that trigger feedback information sent to the server. This technique can be applied to both live captured streams and stored streams without requiring any server side pre-processing. We have implemented this scheme in our continuous media server and verified its operation across real world LAN and WAN connections. The results show smoother transmission schedules than any other previously proposed online technique.

Keywords

Continuous media delivery Continuous media servers Smoothing Video on demand 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    N. Aboobaker, D. Chanady, M. Gerla, and M.Y. Sanadidi, “Streaming Media Congestion Control using Bandwidth Estimation,” in Proc. of IFIP/IEEE International Conference on Management of Multimedia Networks and Services. Stockholm, Sweden, 2002.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Al-Marri and S. Ghandeharizadeh, “An Evaluation of Alternative Disk Scheduling Techniques in Support of Variable Bit Rate Continuous Media,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Extending Database Technology, 1998.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Allman and V. Paxson, “On Estimating End-to-End Network Path Properties,” in SIGCOMM. pp. 263–274, 1999.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. Amir, S. McCanne, and R. Katz: “Receiver-driven Bandwidth Adaptation for Light-weight Session,” in Proceedings of the 5th ACM International Multimedia Conference. Seattle, WA, 1997, pp. 415–426.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. Chang, M. Chen, J. Ho, and M. Ko, “An Effective and Effcient Traffic Smoothing Scheme for Delivery of Online vbr Media Streams,” in Proceedings of the IEEE INFOCOMM, 1999.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    C. Chatfield, Time-Series Forecasting. CHAPMAN&HALL/CRC Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C., 2001Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    H.A. Chen, L. Qiao, and K. Nahrstedt, “Adaptive versus Reservation-based Synchronization Protocols—Analysis and Comparison,” Multimedia Tools and Applications Journal, num. 4, Kluwer Publisher pp. 219–257, 2001.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. Cheung, W. Tan, and T. Yoshimura, “Double Feedback Streaming Agent for Real-time Delivery of Media over 3G Wireless Networks,” in IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC2003). New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 2003.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Dogan, A. Cellatoglu, M. Uyguroglu, A.H. Sadka, and A.M. Kondoz, “Error-Resilient Video Transcoding for Robust Internetwork Communications Using GPRS,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 12, No. 6, pp. 453–464, 2002.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A.C. Feng, A.C. Kapadia, W. Chun Feng, and G.G. Belford, “Packet spacing: An Enabling Mechanism for Delivering Multimedia Content in Computational Grids,” The Journal of Supercomputing, Vol. 23, No. (1) pp. 51–66, 2002.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Floyd, M. Handley, J. Padhye, and J. Widmer, “Equation-based congestion control for unicast applications,” in SIGCOMM 2000. Stockholm, Sweden, 2000, pp. 43–56.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Gevros, J. Crowcroft, P. Kirstein, and S. Bhatti, “Congestion control mechanisms and the best effort service model,” IEEE Networking, Vol. 15, Issue: 3 pp. 16–26, 2001.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A.H. Hac and C.X. Xue, “Synchronization in multimedia data retrieval,” International Journal of Network Management, Volume: 7, Issue: 1 pp. 33–62, 1997.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Hui, E. Karasan, J. Li, and J. Zhang, “Client-Server Synchronization and Buffering for Variable Rate Multimedia Retrievals,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 14(1) pp. 226–237, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Hui, J. Zhang, and J. Li, “Quality of Service Control in GRAMS for ATM Local Area Networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE JSAC, 1995.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    V. Jacobson and M.J. Karels, “Congestion Avoidance and Control,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM '88. 1988, pp. 314–329.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. Karn and C. Partridge, “Improving Round-Trip Time Estimates in Reliable Transport Protocols,” ACM Transactions on Computer Systems 9(4), 364–373, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    P. Khedkar and S. Keshav, “Fuzzy Prediction of Time Series,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Fuzzy Systems, 1992.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    D. Loguinov and H. Radha, “On Retransmission Schemes for Real-time Streaming in the Internet,” in INFOCOM. pp. 1310–1319, 2001.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Mielke and A. Zhang, “A Multi-Level Buffering and Feedback Scheme for Distributed Multimedia Presentation Systems,” in Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (IC3N'98). Lafayette, Louisiana, 1998.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. Morikawa, S. Ota, A. Yamaguchi, and M. Ohashi, “A Feedback Rate Control of Video Stream in Best-Effort High-Speed Mobile Packet Network,” in The 5th International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPMC2003). Sheraton Waikiki, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 2002.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    K. Nahrstedt, “End-to-End QOS Guarantees in Networked Multimedia Systems,” ACM Computing Survey, 27(4) pp. 613–616, 1995.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    H.B. Nick Feamster, “Packet Loss Recovery for Streaming Video,” in Proceedings of 12th International Packet Video Workshop, 2002.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    C. Papadopoulos, G.M. Parulkar, and G. Varghese, “An Error Control Scheme for Large-Scale Multicast Applications,” in Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing. p. 310, 1998.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    S. Pejhan, M. Schwartz, and D. Anastassiou, “Error Control using Retransmission Schemes in Multicast Transport Protocols for Real-time Media,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking Vol. 4, No. 3, 413–427, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. Ramanathan and P.V. Rangan, “Feedback Techniques for Intra-Media Synchronization in Distributed Multimedia Systems,” The Computer Journal, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 19–31, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. Ramanathan and P.V. Rangan, “Feedback Techniques for Synchronizated Multimedia Retrieval over Integrated Networks,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 1(2) pp. 246–260, 1993b.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    I. Rhee, “Error Control Techniques for Interactive Low-Bit Rate Video Transmission over the Internet,” in SIGCOMM. pp. 290–301, 1998.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. Salehi, Z.-L. Zhang, J. Kurose, and D. Towsley, “Supporting stored video: Reducing rate variability and end-to-end resource requirements through optimal smoothing,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking pp. 397–410, 1998.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    C. Shahabi, G. Barish, B. Ellenberger, N. Jiang, M.R. Koladouzan, S.-R.A. Nam, and R. Zimmermann:, “Immersidata Management: Challenges in Management of Data Generated within an Immersive Environment,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Multimedia Information Systems (MIS'99). Indian Wells, California, 1999.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    C. Shahabi, R. Zimmermann, K. Fu, and S.-Y.D. Yao, “Yima: A Second Generation of Continuous Media Servers,” IEEE Computer Magazine pp. 56–64, 2002.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    W. Tan, W. Cui, and J.G. Apostolopoulos, “Playback-Buffer Equalization for Streaming Media using Stateless Transport Prioritization,” in The 13th International Packet Video Workshop (PV2003). Nantes, France, 2003.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    K. Ueda, H. Ohsaki, S. Shimojo, and H. Miyahara, “Design and Implementation of Real-Time Digital Video Streaming System over IPv6 Network using Feedback Control,” in Symposium on Applications and the Internet (SAINT2003). Orlando, Florida, USA, pp. 111–119, 2003.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    D. Wu, Y.T. Hou, W. Zhu, H.-J. Lee, T. Chiang, Y.-Q. Zhang, and H. Chao:, “On End-to-End Architecture for Transporting MPEG-4 Viceo Over the Internet,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 10, No. 6 pp. 923–941, 2000.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    A. Zhang, Y. Song, and M. Mielke, “NetMedia: Streaming multimedia presentations in distributed environments,” IEEE Multimedia, Volume: 9, Issue: 1 pp. 56–73, 2002.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Q. Zhang, W. Zhu, and Q.-Q. Zhang, “Resource Allocation for Multimedia Streaming Over the Internet,” IEEE Transcations on Multimedia, Vol. 3, No. 3 pp. 339–355, 2001.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Z.-L. Zhang, J. Kurose, J. Salehi, and D. Towsley, “Smoothing, statistical multiplexing, and call admission control for stored video,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 16 Issue: 6, pp. 1148–1166, 1997.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    R. Zimmermann, K. Fu, and W.-S. Ku, “Design of a Large Scale Data Stream Recorder,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS 2003). Angers, France, 2003.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    R. Zimmermann, K. Fu, N. Nahata, and C. Shahabi, “Retransmission-Based Error Control in a Many-to-Many Client-Server Environment,” in Proceedings of SPIE/ACM Conference on Multimedia Computing and Networking 2003 (MMCN 2003). Santa Clara, CA, 2003.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    R. Zimmermann, K. Fu, C. Shahabi, S.-Y.D. Yao, and H. Zhu, “Yima: Design and Evaluation of a Streaming Media System for Residential Broadband Services,” in VLDB 2001 Workshop on Databases in Telecommunications (DBTel 2001). Rome, Italy, 2001.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger Zimmermann
    • 1
  • Cyrus Shahabi
    • 1
  • Kun Fu
    • 1
  • Mehrdad Jahangiri
    • 1
  1. 1.Integrated Media Systems Center and Computer Science DepartmentUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations