Advertisement

Estimation of Hardness During Heat Treatment of Steels

  • N. R. Abhaya SimhaEmail author
  • M. P. Sushanth
  • V. Bagali Sachin
  • Maruti
  • T. S. Prasanna Kumar
  • V. Krishna
SIMULATION

A hardness model employing the end quench Jominy method is developed for steels C25, EN8, EN19, EN31 and EN24. The time-temperature data are obtained from four thermocouples mounted at critical places of a specimen. The heat flux during the quenching is determined from the cooling curve obtained with the help of the thermocouple closest to the end of the specimen (quenching place). The two-dimensional axisymmetric equation of heat conduction is solved and used jointly with the models of decomposition of austenite to obtain the distribution of microstructure at the places used to plot the cooling curves. The computed distribution of microstructure and the chemical compositions of the steels are used to estimate the hardness. The computed hardness values agree well with those determined experimentally over the length of the specimen.

Key words

end quenching evaluation of hardness model of decomposition of austenite inverse problem of heat conduction microstructure heat transfer 

References

  1. 1.
    J. V. Beck, B. Blackwell, and R. C. Jr. St. Clair, Inverse Heat Conduction: Ill-Posed Problems, Wiley, New York (1985).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. M. Osman and J. V. Beck, J. Heat Transfer, 112, 843 – 848 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. S. Prasanna Kumar, Numer. Heat Transfer B, 45, 541 – 563 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. S. Prasanna Kumar and H. C. Kamath, Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 35, 575 – 585 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Arunkumar, K. V. S. Rao, and T. S. Prasanna Kumar, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 51, 2676–2685 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. S. Sarmiento, X. Chen, J. Vega, et al., in: Proc. 20th ASM Heat Treating Society Conf., St. Louis, MO (2000).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J.-W. Zhou and S. P. Mahulikar, Exp. Heat Transfer, 19, 297 – 308 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    K. N. Prabhu and A. Prasad, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 12, 48 – 55 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    T. S. Prasanna Kumar, B. Raghunatha Rao, and V. Choudhury, in: Proc. Int. heat Treat. 2004, ASM Int., Chennai, India (2004).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Babu and T. S. Prasanna Kumar, Matall. Mater. Trans. B, 41B, 214 – 224 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. Babu and T. S. Prasanna Kumar, J. Heat Trans-T ASME, 133, 071501 (8 p.) (2011).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Babu and T. S. Prasanna Kumar, Int. Heat Mass Transf., 54,106 – 117 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. S. Kirkaldy and D. Venugopalan, Phase Transformations in Ferrous Alloys, AIME, Warrendale, PA (125 – 148) (1983).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    B. Buchmayr and J. S. Kirkaldy, J. Heat Treat., 8, 127 – 136 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. F. Watt, L. Coon, M. Bibby, et al., Acta Metall., 36, 3029 – 3035 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    T. C. Nguyen and D. C. Weckman, Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 37B, 275 – 292 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. Akerstrom and M. Oldenburg, J. Mater. Proc. Technol., 174, 399 – 406 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    V. M. Li, D. V. Niebuhr, L. L. Meekisho, and D. G. Atteridge, Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 29B, 661 – 672 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    T. S. Prasanna Kumar, “Coupled analysis of surface heat flux, microstructure evolution, and hardness during immersion quenching of a medium carbon steel in plant conditions,” Mater. Perform. Charact., 9(5), ID MPC1044770020 (2012).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    TmmFE by Thermet Solutions, http://www.thermetsolutions.com.
  21. 21.
    P. Maynier, J. Dollet, and P. Bastein, Hardenability Concepts with Applications to Steels, AIME, New York (1978), pp. 518 – 544.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    JMatPro by Sente Software, http://www.sentesoftware.co.uk.
  23. 23.
    W. A. Johnson and R. F. Mehl, Trans. AIME, 135, 416 – 458 (1939).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Avrami, J. Chem. Phys., No. 7, 1103 – 1112 (1939).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. Avrami, J. Chem. Phys., No. 8, 212 – 224 (1940).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    D. P. Kiostinen and R. E. Marburger, Acta Metall., 7, 59 – 60 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. R. Abhaya Simha
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. P. Sushanth
    • 1
  • V. Bagali Sachin
    • 2
  • Maruti
    • 2
  • T. S. Prasanna Kumar
    • 1
  • V. Krishna
    • 1
  1. 1.Process Modelling Research Lab, Department of PG Studies, Mechanical EngineeringPES UniversityBengaluruIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringPES UniversityBengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations