Relation Between the Microstructure of Cold Resistant Steel 20GL and Some Parameters of the Melting Process

  • V. P. ErmakovaEmail author
  • V. G. Smirnova
  • I. V. Nekrasov
  • O. Yu. Sheshukov
  • L. A. Marshuk
  • V. S. Gulyakov

The microstructure, impact toughness and melting parameters of cold-resistant steel 20GL are studied. The impact toughness of the steel at negative temperature (KCV-60) is shown to be affected the most by the size of the primary (natural) grains of the metal. The size of the natural grains is shown to be dependent on the content of oxygen and (to a less degree) of silicon. Introduction of an elevated amount of slag-forming materials and aluminum into liquid metal provides the required (at most 0.005–0.008 wt.%) content of oxygen and an impact toughness (KCV-60) no less than 0.167 MJ/m2. Influence of the nonmetallic inclusions, of the size of actual grains, and of the content of pearlitic phase on KCV-60 in normalized steel has not been detected or was not obvious.

Key words

cold-resistant steel microstructure grain size nonmetallic phase impact toughness at negative temperature (KCV-60parameters of melting in open-hearth furnace 


  1. 1.
    S. A. Saltykov, Stereometric Metallography [in Russian], Metallurgiya, Moscow (1970), 376 p.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. P. Gulyaev, Pure Steel [in Russian], Metallurgiya, Moscow (1975), 184 p.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yu. A. Shul’te, Nonmetallic Inclusions in Electrical Steel [in Russian], Metallurgiya, Moscow (1964), 207 p.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    V. I. Yavoiskii, Yu. V. Kryakovskii, V. P. Grigor’ev, et al., The Metallurgy of Steel [in Russian], Metallurgiya, Moscow (1983), 584 p.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    V. Dahl, H. Hengsterberg, and K. Duren, “Conditions of formation of sulfide inclusions of different types,” Chern. Metally, No. 13, 17 – 27 (1966).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ya. N. Malinochka and G. Z. Koval’chuk, Sulfides in Steels and Cast Irons [in Russian], Metallurgiya, Moscow (1988), 248 p.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. Knuppel, Deoxidation and Vacuum Treatment of Steel. Part 1. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Laws [Russian translation], Metallurgiya, Moscow (1973), 312 p.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    V. V. Lunev and V. V. Averin, Sulfur and Phosphorus in Steel [in Russian], Metallurgiya, Moscow (1988), 256 p.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    V. A. Il’inskii, E. Yu. Karpova, L. V. Kostyleva, and N. I. Gabel’chenko, “Special features of the morphology and structure of Widmanstatten and polyhedral ferrite in low-carbon steels,” Izv. VolgGTU, 4(4), 154 – 158 (2010).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    The Physical Metallurgy and Heat Treatment of Steel and Cast Iron, A Handbook, Vol. 2. Structure of Steel and Cast Iron [in Russian], Intermet Engineering, Moscow (2005), 528 p.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. D. Odesskii and I. I. Vedyakov, Low-carbon Steels for Metallic Structures [in Russian], Intermet Engineering, Moscow (1999), 224 p.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    E. Yu. Karpova, L. V. Kostyleva, and V. A. Il’inskii, “A study of tempering of Widmanstatten ferrite in the process of cooling of steel castings,” Metalloved. Term. Obrab. Met., No. 1, 20 – 23 (1998).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Durand-Charre, Microstructure of Steels and Cast Irons, Springer, Germany (2004), 404 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    The Metallography of Iron, Vol. II, The Structure of Steels [Russian translation], Metallurgiya, Moscow (1972, 284 p.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    V. A. Il’inskii, L. V. Kostyleva, and E. Yu. Karpova, “Special features of the structure and properties of cast low-carbon steels,” Metalloved. Term. Obrab. Met., No. 5, 2 – 4 (1995).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. P. Gulyaev, The Science of Metals [in Russian], Metallurgiya, Moscow (1977), 647 p.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. A. Filippenkov and V. M. Milyaev, Steel Castings [in Russian], UrO RAN, Ekaterinburg (2008), 266 p.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. P. Ermakova
    • 1
    Email author
  • V. G. Smirnova
    • 1
  • I. V. Nekrasov
    • 1
  • O. Yu. Sheshukov
    • 1
    • 2
  • L. A. Marshuk
    • 1
  • V. S. Gulyakov
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of SciencesEkaterinburgRussia
  2. 2.Ural Federal University after the First President of Russia B. N. EltsynEkaterinburgRussia

Personalised recommendations