Earth, Moon, and Planets

, Volume 105, Issue 2–4, pp 257–261 | Cite as

2-Gyr Simulation of the Oort-Cloud Formation. I. Introduction on a New Model of the Outer Oort-Cloud Formation

  • Luboš Neslušan
  • Piotr A. Dybczyński
  • Giuseppe Leto
  • Marián Jakubík
  • Tomáš Paulech


The study of the reservoirs of small bodies in the Solar System can help us to refine our theory of the origin and evolution of the whole planetary system we live in. In this contribution, we introduce a simulation of the evolution of an initial proto-planetary disc (PPD) for 2 Gyr period, in which 10,038 studied test particles (TPs), representing the disc, are perturbed by four giant planets in their current orbits and having their current masses. In addition, Galactic-tide and stellar perturbations are considered. The outer Oort cloud (OC) appears to be formed within about 0.5 Gyr. At 2 Gyr, only 0.14% of all TPs reside in the outer OC, according to our simulation. This is the largest discrepancy with the results of previous authors. The TPs in the outer OC originate from almost all regions of the PPD. Specifically, 14, 7, 29, 21, and 29% of all TPs, that are the members of the outer OC at 2 Gyr, originate in the Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Edgeworth-Kuiper-belt regions, respectively. The largest number of the TPs, 6,669 (66.4%), was ejected into the interstellar space. Besides other results, we found a dominance of high galactic inclinations of outer-OC orbits. Obviously, this is a consequence of the action of Galactic tide.


Solar system: formation Oort cloud 



L. N., M. J., and T. P. thank the project “Enabling Grids for E-sciencE II” ( for the provided computational capacity and support in the development of the computer code, which was necessary for the management of tasks on the GRID. They also acknowledge the partial support of this work by VEGA—the Slovak Grant Agency for Science (grant No. 7047). P.A.D. acknowledges the partial support of this work from Polish Ministry of Science and High Education (year 2008, grant No. N N203 302335). G. L. thanks PI2S2 Project managed by the Consorzio COMETA, and for the computational resources and technical support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luboš Neslušan
    • 1
  • Piotr A. Dybczyński
    • 2
  • Giuseppe Leto
    • 3
  • Marián Jakubík
    • 1
  • Tomáš Paulech
    • 4
  1. 1.Astronomical InstituteSlovak Academy of SciencesTatranská LomnicaSlovakia
  2. 2.Astronomical ObservatoryA. Mickiewicz UniversityPoznańPoland
  3. 3.Catania Astrophysical ObservatoryCataniaItaly
  4. 4.Astronomical InstituteSlovak Academy of SciencesBratislavaSlovakia

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