Earth, Moon, and Planets

, Volume 105, Issue 2–4, pp 263–266 | Cite as

2-Gyr Simulation of the Oort-cloud Formation II. A Close View of the Inner Oort cloud after the First Two Giga-years

  • Giuseppe Leto
  • Marián Jakubík
  • Tomáš Paulech
  • Luboš Neslušan
  • Piotr A. Dybczyński
Article

Abstract

We simulate the formation of the Oort cloud (OC) till the age of 2 Gyr starting from an initial disc of planetesimals made by 10 038 test particles. The results on the outer part of the distant comet reservoir are reported by Neslušan et al. (this issue). Here we deal with the evolution of the population and structure at 2 Gyr of the complementary inner part of the Oort cloud. The dynamical evolution of the massless test particles was followed via the numerical integration of their orbits. We considered the perturbations produced by four giant planets assuming they have their current orbits and masses, as well as the perturbations caused by the Galactic tide and passing stars. The efficiency of the formation of inner OC is found to be very low: only about 1.1% of all considered particles ended in this part of the OC. At 2 Gyr, the dynamics of the inner cloud is mainly governed by the dominant z-term of the Galactic tide. The number density of the bodies is proportional to the heliocentric distance, r, as r−3.53. The directional distribution of orbits is still strongly inhomogeneous. There are large empty regions in the space angles around the Galactic Equator points with the galactic longitude 90 and 270° (non-rotating frame), or there are only few bodies having the ecliptical latitude higher than +60° or lower than 60°. A strong concentration of objects at the Ecliptic is apparent up to ≈1,000 AU, with a possible—but still not proved—extension to ≈1,500 AU. Beyond r ≈ 6,000 AU, bodies directly above and below the Sun, with respect to the Ecliptic, are absent.

Keywords

Solar system: formation Oort cloud 

Notes

Acknowledgements

G.L. thanks PI2S2 Project managed by the Consorzio COMETA, http://www.pi2s2.it and http://www.consorzio-cometa.it for the computational resources and technical support. L.N., M.J., and T.P. thank the project “Enabling Grids for E-sciencE II” (http://www.eu-egee.org/) for the provided computational capacity and support in the development of the computer code, which was necessary for the management of tasks on the GRID. They also acknowledge the partial support of this work by VEGA— the Slovak Grant Agency for Science (grants Nos. 7009 and 7047). P.A.D. acknowledges the partial support of this work from Polish Ministry of Science and High Education (year 2008, grant No. N N203 302335).

References

  1. P. A. Dybczyński, G. Leto, M. Jakubík, T. Paulech, L. Neslušan, The simulation of the outer Oort cloud formation - The first giga-year of the evolution. A&A 487, 345–355 (2008)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. G. Leto, M. Jakubík, T. Paulech, L. Neslušan, PA. Dybczyński, The structure of the inner Oort cloud from the simulation of its formation for two Giga-years. MNRAS 391 1350–1358 (2008)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. G. Leto, M. Jakubík, L. Neslušan, P.A. Dybczyński, T. Paulech, The outer Oort cloud formation: Simulation of the first Gyr evolution, in Proceedings of the Symposium “Grid Open Days all’Universita’ di Palermo”, (Consorzio COMETA, Palermo, Italy, 2007), pp. 53–58 ISBN 978-88-95892-00-9Google Scholar
  4. L. Neslušan, P.A. Dybczyński, G. Leto, M. Jakubík, T. Paulech, 2-Gyr simulation of the Oort-cloud formation, I. Introduction on a new model of the outer Oort-cloud formation. This issueGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuseppe Leto
    • 1
  • Marián Jakubík
    • 2
  • Tomáš Paulech
    • 3
  • Luboš Neslušan
    • 2
  • Piotr A. Dybczyński
    • 4
  1. 1.Catania Astrophysical ObservatoryCataniaItaly
  2. 2.Astronomical Institute, Slovak Academy of SciencesTatranská LomnicaSlovakia
  3. 3.Astronomical Institute, Slovak Academy of SciencesBratislavaSlovakia
  4. 4.Astronomical Observatory, A. Mickiewicz UniversityPoznańPoland

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