Earth, Moon, and Planets

, Volume 98, Issue 1–4, pp 39–95 | Cite as

3. Solar System Formation and Early Evolution: the First 100 Million Years

  • Thierry Montmerle
  • Jean-Charles Augereau
  • Marc Chaussidon
  • Mathieu Gounelle
  • Bernard Marty
  • Alessandro Morbidelli
Original Paper

Abstract

The solar system, as we know it today, is about 4.5 billion years old. It is widely believed that it was essentially completed 100 million years after the formation of the Sun, which itself took less than 1 million years, although the exact chronology remains highly uncertain. For instance: which, of the giant planets or the terrestrial planets, formed first, and how? How did they acquire their mass? What was the early evolution of the “primitive solar nebula” (solar nebula for short)? What is its relation with the circumstellar disks that are ubiquitous around young low-mass stars today? Is it possible to define a “time zero” (t0), the epoch of the formation of the solar system? Is the solar system exceptional or common? This astronomical chapter focuses on the early stages, which determine in large part the subsequent evolution of the proto-solar system. This evolution is logarithmic, being very fast initially, then gradually slowing down. The chapter is thus divided in three parts: (1) The first million years: the stellar era. The dominant phase is the formation of the Sun in a stellar cluster, via accretion of material from a circumstellar disk, itself fed by a progressively vanishing circumstellar envelope. (2) The first 10 million years: the disk era. The dominant phase is the evolution and progressive disappearance of circumstellar disks around evolved young stars; planets will start to form at this stage. Important constraints on the solar nebula and on planet formation are drawn from the most primitive objects in the solar system, i.e., meteorites. (3) The first 100 million years: the “telluric” era. This phase is dominated by terrestrial (rocky) planet formation and differentiation, and the appearance of oceans and atmospheres.

Keywords

Star formation: stellar clusters circumstellar disks circumstellar dust jets and outflows; solar nebula: high-energy irradiation meteorites short-lived radionuclides extinct radioactivities supernovae; planet formation: planetary embryos runaway growth giant planets migration asteroid belt formation of the Moon; early Earth: atmosphere core differentiation magnetic field 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abergel A., et al. (1996) Astron. Astrophys. 315: L329–L332ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams F. C., Myers P. C. (2001) Astrophys. J. 553: 744–753ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams F. C., Hollenbach D., Laughlin G., Gorti U. (2004) Astrophys. J. 611: 360–379ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Adams, F. C., Proszkow, E. M., Fatuzzo, M., and Myers, P. C.: 2006, Astrophys. J. 641, 504–525Google Scholar
  5. Agnor C. B., Canup R. M., Levison H. F. (1999) Icarus 142: 219–237ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Alibert Y., Mordasini C., Benz W., Winisdoerffer C. (2005) Astorn. Astrophys. 434:343–353ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Allègre C. J., Manhes G., Gopel C. (1995) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 59: 1445–1456ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Amelin Y., Krot A. N., Hutcheon I. D., Ulyanov A. A. (2002) Science 297: 1678–1683ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Anders E., Grevesse N. (1989) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 53: 197–214ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. André P., Montmerle T. (1994) Astrophys. J. 420: 837–862ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. André P., Ward-Thompson D., Barsony M. (2000) In: Mannings V., Boss A. P., Russell S. S. (eds) Protostars and Planets IV. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 59–97Google Scholar
  12. Baker J., Bizzarro M., Wittig N., Connelly J., Haack H. (2005) Nature 436: 1127–1131ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Balbus S. A., Hawley J. F. (1991) Astrophys. J. 376: 214–233ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Bate, M. R. and Bonnell, I. A.: 2004, in H. J. G. L. M. Lamers, L. J. Smith, and A. Nota (eds.), The Formation and Evolution of Massive Young Star Clusters. ASP Conf. Ser., 322, 289Google Scholar
  15. Beaulieu, J.-Ph. et al.: 2006, Nature 439, 437–440Google Scholar
  16. Benz W. (2000) Sp. Sci. Rev. 92: 279–294ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Bertout C. (1989) Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 27: 351–395ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. Bizzarro M., Baker J. A., Haack H. (2004) Nature 431: 275–278ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Boss A. P. (2003) Astrophys. J. 599: 577–581ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Bouvier A., Blichert-Toft J., Vervoort J. D., McClelland W., Albarède F. (2005) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta Suppl. 69(Suppl. 1): A384ADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Bouvier J., et al. (1999) Astron. Astrophys. 349: 619–635ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. Bouvier J., et al. (2003) Astron. Astrophys. 409: 169–192ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. Brearley, A. and Jones, R. H.: 1998, in J. J. Papike (ed.), Planetary materials. Rev. Mineral. 36, 3/1–3/398Google Scholar
  24. Busso M., Gallino R., Wasserburg G. J. (2003), Pub. Astr. Soc. Austr 20: 356–370ADSGoogle Scholar
  25. Canup R. M. (2004a) Icarus 168:433–456ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. Canup R. M. (2004b) Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 42:441–475ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. Canup R. M., Asphaug E. (2001) Nature 412: 708–712ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. Canup R. M., Levison H. F., Stewart G. R. (1999) Astr.J. 117:603–620ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. Canup R. M., Esposito L. W. (1996) Icarus 119: 427–446ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Carpenter J. M., Wolf S., Schreyer K., Launhardt R., Henning T. (2005) Astr. J. 129: 1049–1062ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. Chambers J. E., Wetherill G. W. (1998) Icarus 136: 304–327ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. Chambers J. E., Wetherill G. W. (2001) Belt. Met. Plan. Sci. 36: 381–399ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. Chambers J. E.: (2001) Icarus 152: 205–224ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. Chaussidon, M. and Gounelle, M.: 2006, in D. Lauretta and L. Leshin (eds.), Meteorites & Early Solar System II. Tucson, University of Arizona Press, pp. 323–340Google Scholar
  35. Chaussidon M., Libourel G., Krot A. N. (2006) Lunar Planet. Sci. 36: 1335ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. Chaussidon M., Robert F., McKeegan K. D. (2006) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70: 224–245ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. Chokshi A., Tielens A. G. G. M., Hollenbach D. (1993) Astrophys. J. 407: 806–819ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Clark, P. C., Bonnell, I. A., Zinnecker, H., Bate, M. R.: 2005, Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc. 359: 809–818ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. Crutcher R. M.: 2005, in Magnetic fields in the Universe: From Laboratory and Stars to Primordial Structures, AIP Conf. Proc., vol. 784, pp. 129–139Google Scholar
  40. Diehl et al. (2006) Nature 439: 45–47ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. Diehl R., Cerviño M., Hartmann D. H., Kretschmar K. (2004) New Astr. Rev. 48: 81–86ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. Donati J.-F., Paletou F., Bouvier J., Ferreira J. (2005) Nature 438: 466–469ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Draine B. T. (2006), Astrophys. J. 636: 1114–1120ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. Duchêne G., McCabe C., Ghez A. M., Macintosh B. A. (2004) Astrophys. J. 606: 969–982ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. Ehrenfreund P., Charnley S. B. (2000), Organic molecules in the interstellar medium, comets, and meteorites: A voyage from dark clouds to the early Earth. Ann. Rev. Astr. Ap. 38: 427–483ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. Falgarone, E., Hily-Blant, P., Pety, J. and Pineau Des Forêts, G.: 2005 in Magnetic fields in the Universe: From Laboratory and Stars to Primordial Structures, AIP Conf. Proc., vol. 784, pp. 299–307Google Scholar
  47. Favata F., Micela G., Silva B., Sciortino S., Tsujimoto M. (2005) Astron. Astrophys. 433: 1047–1054ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. Feigelson E. D. (2005) Met. Planet. Sci. 40(Suppl): 5339Google Scholar
  49. Feigelson E. D., Montmerle T. (1999) Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 37: 363–408ADSGoogle Scholar
  50. Feigelson E. D., Getman K., Townsley L., Garmire G., Preibisch T., Grosso N., Montmerle T., Muench A., McCaughrean M. (2005) Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 160: 379–389ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. Ferreira J., Pelletier G., Appl S. (2000) Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 312: 387–397ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. Ferreira J., Casse F. (2004) Astrophys. J. 601: L139–L142ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. Fleming T., Stone J. M. (2003) Astrophys. J. 585: 908–920ADSGoogle Scholar
  54. Fromang S., Balbus S. A., Terquem C., De Villiers J.-P. (2004) Astrophys. J. 616: 364–375ADSGoogle Scholar
  55. Fromang S., Terquem C., Balbus S. A. (2002) Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 329: 18–28ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. Gallino R., Busso M., Wasserburg G. J., Straniero O. (2004) New Astr. Rev. 48: 133–138ADSGoogle Scholar
  57. Galy A., Young E. D., Ash R. D., O’Nions R. K. (2002) Science 290: 1751–1753ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. Getman K. V., Feigelson E. D., Grosso N., McCaughrean M. J., Micela G., Broos P., Garmire G., Townsley L. (2005) Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 160: 353–378ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. Glassgold A. E., Feigelson E. D., Montmerle T. (2000) In: Mannings V., Boss A. P., Russell S. S. (eds) Protostars and Planets IV. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 429–455Google Scholar
  60. Glassgold, A. E., Feigelson, E. D., Montmerle, T. and Wolk, S.: 2005, in A. N. Krot, E. R. D. Scott and B. Repurth (eds.), Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk. ASP Conf. Ser., vol. 341, pp. 165–182Google Scholar
  61. Goldreich P., Ward W. R. (1973) Astrophys. J. 183: 1051–1061ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. Goodwin S. P., Whitworth A. P., Ward-Thompson D. (2004) Astron. Astrophys. 423: 169–182ADSGoogle Scholar
  63. Gounelle M., Russell S. S. (2005) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69: 3129–3144ADSGoogle Scholar
  64. Gounelle M., Shu F. H., Shang H., Glassgold A. E., Rehm K. E., Lee T. (2004) Lunar and Planet. Sci. Conf. XXXV: 1829ADSGoogle Scholar
  65. Gounelle M., Shu F. H., Shang H., Glassgold A. E., Rehm K. E., Lee T. (2001) Astrophys. J. 548: 1051–1070ADSGoogle Scholar
  66. Greaves J. S. (2005) Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., Letts. 364: L47–L50ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. Greenberg R., Wacker J. F., Hartmann W. K., Chapman C. R. (1978) Icarus 35: 1–26ADSGoogle Scholar
  68. Grosso N., Alves J., Wood K., Neuhäuser R., Montmerle T., Bjorkman J. E. (2003) Astrophys. J. 586: 296–305ADSGoogle Scholar
  69. Guillot T. (1999) Science 286: 72–77ADSGoogle Scholar
  70. Guillot T. (2005) Ann. Rev. Earth Plan. Sci. 33: 493–530ADSGoogle Scholar
  71. Guillot, T. and Hueso, R.: 2006, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 367, L47–L51Google Scholar
  72. Guilloteau S., Dutrey A., Simon M. (1999). Astr. Astrophys. 348: 570–578ADSGoogle Scholar
  73. Haisch K. E., Lada E. A., Lada C. J. (2001) Astrophys. J. Lett. 553: L153–L156ADSGoogle Scholar
  74. Hale C. J., Dunlop D. (1984) Geophys. Res. Lett. 11: 97–100ADSGoogle Scholar
  75. Halliday A. N., Wänke H., Birck J. L., Clayton R. N. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96: 1–34Google Scholar
  76. Harker D. E., Desch S. J. (2002) Astrophys. J. Lett. 565: L109–L112ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. Harris M. J., Knödlseder J., Jean P., Cisana E., Diehl R., Lichti G. G., Roques J.-P., Schanne S., Weidenspointner G. (2005) Astron. Astrophys. 433: L49–L52ADSGoogle Scholar
  78. Hayashi C. (1966) Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 4: 171–192ADSGoogle Scholar
  79. Hayashi C. (1981) Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 70: 35–53Google Scholar
  80. Hayashi M., Shibata K., Matsumoto R. (2000) Adv. Sp. Res. 26: 567–570ADSGoogle Scholar
  81. Heiles C., Haffner L. M., Reynolds R. J., Tufte S. L. (2000) Astrophys. J. 536: 335–346ADSGoogle Scholar
  82. Hester, J. J. and Desch, S.: 2005, in A. N. Krot and E. R. D. Scott and B. Reipurth (eds.), Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk. ASP Conf series, vol. 341, pp. 107–130Google Scholar
  83. Hewins R. H. (1997) Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 25:61–83ADSGoogle Scholar
  84. Hewins, R. H., Connolly, H. C. Jr., Lofgren, G. E. and Libourel, G.: 2005, in A. N. Krot, E. R. D. Scot and B. Reipurth (eds.), Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk. ASP Conf. Series, vol. 341, pp. 286–316Google Scholar
  85. Hillenbrand L. A. (1997) Astron. J. 113: 1733–1768ADSGoogle Scholar
  86. Hillenbrand, L. A.: 2006, in Livio M. (ed.), A Decade of Discovery: Planets Around Other Stars. STScI Symposium Series 19, in pressGoogle Scholar
  87. Huss G. R., Tachibana S. (2004) Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 35:1811ADSGoogle Scholar
  88. Ida S., Canup R. M., Stewart G. R. (1997) Nature 389:353–357ADSGoogle Scholar
  89. Ida S., Makino J. (1993) Icarus 106: 210–227ADSGoogle Scholar
  90. Ilgner M., Nelson R. P. (2006) Astron. Astrophys. 445: 205–222ADSGoogle Scholar
  91. Johns-Krull C. M., Gafford A. D. (2002) Astrophys. J. 573: 685–698ADSGoogle Scholar
  92. Kessler-Silacci J. E., Augereau J.-C., Dullemond C. P., et al. (2006) Astrophys. J. 639: 275–291ADSGoogle Scholar
  93. Kleine, T., Metzger, K. and Palme, H.: 2005, Lunar Planet. Sci. 36, 1940, CD-ROMGoogle Scholar
  94. Kleine T., Munker C., Mezfer K., Palme H. (2002) Nature 418: 952–955ADSGoogle Scholar
  95. Kokubo E., Ida S. (1998) Icarus 131:171–178ADSGoogle Scholar
  96. Kokubo E., Ida S., Makino J. (2000) Icarus 148:419–436ADSGoogle Scholar
  97. Kroupa P. (2002) Science 295: 82–91ADSGoogle Scholar
  98. Krumholz M. R., McKee C. F., Klein R. I. (2005) Nature 438: 332–334ADSGoogle Scholar
  99. Kunz J., Staudacher T., Allègre C. J. (1998) Science 280(5365):877–880ADSGoogle Scholar
  100. Laskar J., Robutel P. (1993) Nature 361: 608–612ADSGoogle Scholar
  101. Lee D. C., Halliday A. (1995), Nature 378: 771–774ADSGoogle Scholar
  102. Lee T., Shu F. H., Shang H., Glassgold A. E., Rhem K. E. (1998) Astrophys. J. 506: 898–912ADSGoogle Scholar
  103. Lissauer J. (1987) Icarus 69: 249–265ADSGoogle Scholar
  104. Lyo A.-Ran, Lawson W. A., Mamajek E. E., Feigelson E. D., Sung Eon-Chang, Crause L. A. (2003) Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 338: 616–622ADSGoogle Scholar
  105. MacPherson G. J., Davis A. M., Zinner E. K. (1995) Meteoritics 30: 365–386ADSGoogle Scholar
  106. MacPherson G. J., Huss G. R. (2003) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 67:3165–3179ADSGoogle Scholar
  107. Matsumura S., Pudritz R. E. (2006) Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 365: 572–584ADSGoogle Scholar
  108. Matsumoto R., Machida M., Hayashi M., Shibata K. (2000) Progr. Th. Phys. Suppl. 138: 632–637ADSGoogle Scholar
  109. Matzner C. D., McKee C. F. (2000) Astrophys. J. 545: 364–378ADSGoogle Scholar
  110. Megeath S. T., Hartmann L., Luhman K. L., Fazio G. G. (2005) Astrophys. J. Lett. 634: L113–L116ADSGoogle Scholar
  111. Manhès G., Göpel C. and Allègre C. J.: 1988, Comptes Rendus de l’ATP Planétologie, 323–327Google Scholar
  112. Marty B., Marti K. (2002) Earth Plan. Sci. Letts. 196(3–4): 251–263ADSGoogle Scholar
  113. Masset F., Morbidelli A., Carida A., Ferreira J. (2006) . Astrophys. J. 642:478–487ADSGoogle Scholar
  114. Masset F., Snellgrove M. (2001) Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc. 320:L55–L59ADSGoogle Scholar
  115. McKeegan K. D., Davis A. M. (2003) In: Holl H., Turekian K. (eds) Treatise on Geochemistry Vol 1. Oxford, Elsevier-Pergamon, pp. 431–460Google Scholar
  116. McKeegan K. D., Chaussidon M., Robert F. (2000) Science 289: 1334–1337ADSGoogle Scholar
  117. Meyer, B. S.: 2005, in A. N. Krot, E. R. D. Scott and B. Reipurth (eds.), Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk, ASP Conf series, vol. 341, pp. 515–526Google Scholar
  118. Micela G., Favata F. (2005) Sp. Sci. Rev. 108: 577–708Google Scholar
  119. Montmerle T. (1979) Astrophys. J. 231:95–110ADSGoogle Scholar
  120. Montmerle T. (2002) New Astr. Rev. 46: 573–583ADSGoogle Scholar
  121. Montmerle T. (2005) In: Gargaud M., Barbier B., Martin H., Reisse J. (eds) Lectures in Astrobiology. Heidelberg, Springer, pp. 27–59Google Scholar
  122. Morbidelli A., Levison H. F. (2004) Astron. J. 128: 2564–2576ADSGoogle Scholar
  123. Mostefaoui S., Kita N. T., Togashi S., Tachibana S., Nagahara H., Morishita Y. (2002), Meteoritics Planet. Sci. 37: 421–438ADSGoogle Scholar
  124. Mostefaoui S., Lugmair G. W., Hoppe P., El Goresy A. (2004) New Astron. Rev. 48: 155–159ADSGoogle Scholar
  125. Motte F., André P., Neri R. (1998) Astron. Astrophys. 336: 150–172ADSGoogle Scholar
  126. Muzerolle J., Calvet N., Hartmann L. (2001) Astrophys. J. 550: 944–961ADSGoogle Scholar
  127. Natta, A., Testi, L., Calvet, N., Henning, Th., Waters, R. and Wilner, D.: 2006, in: B. Reipurth (ed.), Protostars and Planets V. Tucson, University of Arizona Press, in press (eprint arXiv:astro-ph/0602041)Google Scholar
  128. Nelson R. P. (2005) Astron. Astrophys. 443:1067–1085ADSGoogle Scholar
  129. Ozawa H., Grosso N., Montmerle T. (2005) Astron. Astrophys. 429: 963–975ADSGoogle Scholar
  130. Padoan P., Jimenez R., Juvela M., Nordlund Å. (2004) Astrophys. J. 604: L49–L52ADSGoogle Scholar
  131. Pahlevan K., Stevenson D. J. (2005) Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 36:2382Google Scholar
  132. Palla F., Stahler S. W. (1999) Astrophys. J. 525: 772–783ADSGoogle Scholar
  133. Petit J.-M., Morbidelli A., Chambers J. (2001) Icarus 153: 338–347ADSGoogle Scholar
  134. Pety J., Falgarone E. (2003) Astron. Astrophys. 412: 417–430ADSGoogle Scholar
  135. Podolak M. (2003) Icarus 165:428–437ADSGoogle Scholar
  136. Podosek F. A., Zinner E. K., MacPherson G. J., Lundberg L.L., Brannon J. C., Fahey A. J. (1991) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55: 1083–1110ADSGoogle Scholar
  137. Pollack J. B., Hubickyj O., Bodenheimer P., Lissauer J. J, Podolak M., Greenzweig Y. (1996) Icarus 124: 62–85ADSGoogle Scholar
  138. Poppe T., Blum J. (1997) Adv. Space. Res. 20: 1595–1604ADSGoogle Scholar
  139. Poppe T., Blum J., Henning T. (2000), Astophys. J. 533: 454–471ADSGoogle Scholar
  140. Reipurth B., Bally J. (2001) Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 39: 403–455ADSGoogle Scholar
  141. Ryter C. (1996) Astr. Sp. Sci. 236: 285–291ADSGoogle Scholar
  142. Sasaki T., Abe Y. (2004) Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 35:2382ADSGoogle Scholar
  143. Shang H., Glassgold A. E., Shu F. H., Lizano S. (2002) Astrophys. J. 564: 853–876ADSGoogle Scholar
  144. Shu F. H., Adams F. C., Lizano S. (1987) Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 25: 23–81ADSGoogle Scholar
  145. Shu F. H., Shang H., Glassgold A. E., Lee T. (1997) . Science 277:1475–1479ADSGoogle Scholar
  146. Stelzer B., Neuhaüser R. (2001) Astron. Astrophys. 377: 538–556ADSGoogle Scholar
  147. Stolper E., Paque J. M. (1986) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 50: 1785–1806ADSGoogle Scholar
  148. Tanga P., Babiano A., Dubrulle B., Provenzale A. (1996) Icarus 121: 158–177ADSGoogle Scholar
  149. Thommes E. W., Duncan M. J., Levison H. F. (2003) Icarus 161: 431–455ADSGoogle Scholar
  150. Throop H. B., Bally J. (2005) Astrophys. J. 623: L149–L152ADSGoogle Scholar
  151. Tsujimoto M., Feigelson E. D., Grosso N., Micela G., Tsuboi Y., Favata F., Shang H., Kastner J. H. (2005) Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 160: 503–510ADSGoogle Scholar
  152. Wasserburg G. J. (1987) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 86:129–173ADSGoogle Scholar
  153. Weidenschilling S. J. (1977) Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 180: 57–70ADSGoogle Scholar
  154. Weidenschilling S. J. (1980) Icarus 44: 172–189ADSGoogle Scholar
  155. Wetherhill G. W. (1980) Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 18: 77ADSGoogle Scholar
  156. Wetherill G. W. (1990) Ann. Rev. of Earth Plan. Sciences 18: 205–256ADSGoogle Scholar
  157. Yin Q., Jacobsen S. B., Yamashita K., Telouk P., Blichert-Toft J., Albarède F. (2002), Nature 418: 949–952ADSGoogle Scholar
  158. Yokochi R., Marty B. (2005) Earth Plan. Sci. Letts. 238: 17–30ADSGoogle Scholar
  159. Young E. D., Simon J. I., Galy A., Russell S. S., Tonui E., Lovera O. (2005) Science 308: 223–227ADSGoogle Scholar
  160. Yoshihara A., Hamano Y. (2004), Precambr. Res. 131: 111–142Google Scholar
  161. Zanda B. (2004) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 224: 1–17ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thierry Montmerle
    • 1
  • Jean-Charles Augereau
    • 1
  • Marc Chaussidon
    • 2
  • Mathieu Gounelle
    • 3
    • 4
  • Bernard Marty
    • 5
  • Alessandro Morbidelli
    • 6
  1. 1.Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de GrenobleUniversité Joseph FourierGrenobleFrance
  2. 2.Centre de Recherches Pétrographiques et Géochimiques (CRPG)NancyFrance
  3. 3.Muséum National d’Histoire NaturelleParisFrance
  4. 4.Natural History MuseumLondonUK
  5. 5.Ecole Nationale Supérieure de GéologieNancyFrance
  6. 6.Observatoire de la Côte d’AzurNiceFrance

Personalised recommendations