Advertisement

Protecting Source Location Privacy in a Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks against Local Eavesdroppers

  • Mamoun F. Al-Mistarihi
  • Islam M. Tanash
  • Fedaa S. Yaseen
  • Khalid A. Darabkh
Article
  • 35 Downloads

Abstract

Recently, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been extensively employed in several tactical applications out of which target detection, habit monitoring, and earthquake monitoring. The open characteristic nature of WSNs makes it vulnerable to be attacked by an eavesdropper who aims at disrupting the network operation or access confidential information. Consequently, ensuring the security and privacy in WSNs is considered an essential issue and definitely cannot be left without proper investigations. There are two types of threats that may occur for the WSNs privacy, that are, contextual and content privacy. Location privacy is considered an example of contextual privacy. In this paper, three source privacy protection schemes, which are based on clustering methodology, are proposed to protect contextual privacy. These schemes are dynamic shortest path (DSP) scheme, dynamic tree (DT) scheme, and hybrid scheme. Interestingly, a grid-based clustering technique is adopted to divide the network into several square clusters. Matlab simulations are used to evaluate the performance of the three proposed schemes in terms of latency, energy consumption, and safety period. The results undoubtedly confirm the effectiveness of the proposed schemes. Very high safety period is achieved and an adequate amount of energy is consumed. Furthermore, acceptable latency is achieved when compared to the shortest path scheme.

Keywords

Location Privacy Eavesdropper IDDR DBT Network Lifetime Event Detection Safety Period Latency Energy consumption 

References

  1. 1.
    Darabkh KA, Al-Rawashdeh WS, Al-Zubi RT, Alnabelsi SH (2017) C-DTB-CHR: Centralized Density- and Threshold-based Cluster Head Replacement Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks. J Supercomput 73(12):5332–5353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shurman MM, Al-Mistarihi MF, Darabkh KA (2016) Dynamic Distribution of Security Keys and IP Addresses Coalition Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. AUTOMATIKA – Journal for Control, Measurement, Electronics, Computing and Communications 5(4):1020–1034Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Darabkh KA, Abu-Jaradeh B, Jafar I (2011) Incorporating Automatic Repeat Request and Thresholds with Variable Complexity Decoding Algorithms over Wireless Networks: Queuing Analysis. IET Commun 5(10):1377–1393MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Al-Mistarihi MF, Mohaisen R, Sharaqa A, Shurman MM, Darabkh KA (2015) Performance Evaluation of Multiuser Diversity in Multiuser Two-Hop Cooperative Multi-Relay Wireless Networks using MRC over Rayleigh Fading Channels. Int J Commun Syst 28(1):71–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Darabkh KA (2017) Fast and Upper Bounded Fano Decoding Algorithm: Queuing Analysis. Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies 28(1):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Al-Zubi R, Hawa M, Al-Sukkar G, Darabkh KA (2014) Markov-Based Distributed Approach For Mitigating Self-Coexistence Problem in IEEE 802.22 WRANs. Comput J 57(12):1765–1775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Darabkh KA, Jafar I, Al Sukkar G, Abandah G, Al-Zubi R (2012) An Improved Queuing Model for Packet Retransmission Policy and Variable Latency Decoders. IET Commun 6(18):3315–3328MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Khalifeh AF, Al-Tamimi A-K, Darabkh KA (2017) Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality Under Lossy Networks. Proc. International Conference on Wireless Communications, Signal Processing and Networking (WiSPNET 2017). Chennai, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hlayel MM, Hayajneh AM, Al-Mistarihi MF, Shurman M, Darabkh KA (2014) Closed-form Expression of Bit Error Rate in Dual-Hop Dual-Branch Mixed Relaying Cooperative Networks with Best-Path Selection over Rayleigh Fading Channels. Proc. IEEE International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals & Devices, Conference on Communication & Signal Processing. Castelldefels-Barcelona, SpainGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Darabkh KA, Abu-Jaradeh B (2010) Bounded Fano Decoders over Intermediate Hops Excluding Packet Retransmission. Proc. IEEE 24th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA 2010). Perth, Australia 299–303Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Darabkh KA, Abu-Jaradeh B (2010) Buffering Study over Intermediate Hops including Packet Retransmission.Proc. IEEE International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Information Technology (MCIT-2010). Sharjah, U.A.E: 45–48Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Darabkh KA, Aygun RS (2006) Quality of Service Evaluation of Error Control for TCP/IP-Based Systems in Packet Switching ATM Networks. Proc. International Conference on Internet Computing (ICOMP'06). Las Vegas, Nevada: 243–248Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hawa M, Darabkh KA, Khalaf LD, Rahhal JS (2015) Dynamic Resource Allocation Using Load Estimation in Distributed Cognitive Radio Systems. AEÜ - Int J Electron Commun 69(12):1833–1846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Darabkh KA, Ibeid H, Jafar IF, Al-Zubi RT (2016) A generic buffer occupancy expression for stop-and-wait hybrid automatic repeat request protocol over unstable channels. Telecommun Syst 63(2):205–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shurman M, Awad N, Al-Mistarihi MF, Darabkh KA (2014) LEACH Enhancements for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Energy Model. Proc. IEEE International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals & Devices, Conference on Communication & Signal Processing. Castelldefels-Barcelona, SpainGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hawa M, Darabkh KA, Al-Zubi R, Al-Sukkar G (2016) A Self-Learning MAC Protocol for Energy Harvesting and Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks. Journal of Sensors: 1–18Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Khalifeh AF, AlQudah M, Darabkh KA(2017) Optimizing the Beacon and SuperFrame Orders in IEEE 802.15.4 for Real-time Notification in Wireless Sensor Networks. Proc. International Conference on Wireless Communications, Signal Processing and Networking (WiSPNET 2017). Chennai, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Darabkh KA, Alsukour O (2015) Novel Protocols for Improving the Performance of ODMRP and EODMRP over Mobile Ad hoc Networks. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks: 1–18Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shurman M, Al-Mistarihi M, Darabkh KA, Ababnah A (2013) Hierarchical Clustering Using Genetic Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks. Proc. of 36th IEEE International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO 2013): 479–483Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Darabkh KA, Albtoush WY, Jafar IF (2017) Improved Clustering Algorithms for Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks. J Supercomput 73(5):1952–1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Darabkh KA, Al-Rawashdeh WS, Hawa M, Saifan R, Khalifeh AF(2017) A Novel Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. Proc. International Conference on Wireless Communications, Signal Processing and Networking (WiSPNET 2017). Chennai, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yick J, Mukherjee B, Ghosal D (2008) Wireless sensor network survey. Comput Netw 52:2292–2330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chen X, Makki K, Yen K, Pissinou N (2009) Sensor network security: a survey. IEEE Commun Surv Tutorials 11(2):52–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Akyildiz IF, Su W, Sankarasubramaniam Y, Cayirci E (2002) Wireless sensor networks: a survey. Comput Netw 38:393–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Khemapech I, Duncan I, Miller A (2005) A Survey of Wireless Sensor Networks TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gupta SK, Sinha P (2014) Overview of Wireless Sensor Network: A Survey. Int J Adv Res Comput Commun Eng 3(1):5201–5207Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Buratti C, Conti A, Dardari D, Verdone R (2009) An Overview on Wireless Sensor Networks Technology and Evolution. Sensors 9:6869–6896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tarannum S (2010) Energy conservation Challenges in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Comprehensive Study. Wirel Sens Netw 2:483–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sen J (2009) A Survey on Wireless Sensor Network Security. Int J Commun Netw Inf Secur 1(2):55–78Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pathan AK, Lee HW, Hong CS (2006) Security in Wireless Sensor Networks: Issues and Challenges. Proc. ICACT2006:1043–1048Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Malik MY (2011) An Outline of Security in Wireless Sensor Networks: Threats, Countermeasures and Implementations. Wireless Sensor Networks and Energy Efficiency: Protocols, Routing and ManagementGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Abuhelaleh MA, Elleithy KM (2010) Security in Wireless Sensor Networks: Key Management Module in SOOAWSN. Int J Netw SecurAppl 2(4):67–78Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chen H, Lou W (2014) On protecting end-to-end Location Privacy against Local Eavesdropper in Wireless Sensor Networks. Elsevier, pervasive mob comput 16:36–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zeng Y, Cao J, Zhang S, Guo S, Xie L (2010) Random-walk based approach to detect clone attacks in wireless sensor networks. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 28(5):677–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    KhanWZ, AalsalemMY, SaadNM, XaingY, LuanTH (2014) Detecting replicated nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks using random walks and network division. Proc. IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC2014: 2623–2628Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zhang L (2006) A self-adjusting directed random walk approach for enhancing source-location privacy in sensor network routing. Proc. International conference on Wireless communications and mobile computing, IWCMC’06: 33–38Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chen H, Lou W (2010) From nowhere to somewhere: protecting end-to-end location privacy in wireless sensor networks. Proc. IEEE 29th International Performance Computing and Communications Conference, IPCCC 2010: 1–8Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Li Y, Ren J (2009) Providing source-location privacy in wireless sensor networks. Proc. International Conference on Wireless Algorithms, Systems and Applications, WASA 2009: 338–347Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kamat P, Zhang Y, Trappe W, Ozturk C (2005) Enhancing source location privacy in sensor network routing. Proc. 25th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, ICDCS 2005. Los Alamitos, CA, USA: 599–608Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ozturk C, Zhang Y, Trappe W (2004) Source-location privacy in energy-constrained sensor network routing. Proc. 2nd ACM workshop on Security of Ad hoc and Sensor Networks, SASN ‘04: 88–93Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Spachos P, Song L, Hatzinakos D (2010) Opportunistic routing for enhanced source-location privacy in wireless sensor networks. Proc. IEEE 25th Biennial Symposium on Communications, QBSC 2010: 315–318Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wei-ping W, Liang C, Jian-xin W (2008) A source-location privacy protocol in wsn based on locational angle.Proc. IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC’08. Piscataway, NJ, USA: 1630–1634Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Luo X, Ji X, Park M (2010) Location privacy against traffic analysis attacks in wireless sensor networks. Proc. IEEE International Conference on Information Science and Applications, ICISA 2010: 1–6Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Xiong K, Thuente D (2006) Secure Localization Schemes in Sensor Networks. IEEE International Symposium on High Capacity Optical Networks and Enabling TechnologiesGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tan W, Xu K, Wang D (2014) An anti-tracking source-location privacy protection protocol in WSNs based on path extension. IEEE Internet Things J 1(5):461–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Long J, Dong M, Ota K, Liu A (2014) Achieving Source Location Privacy and Network Lifetime Maximization Through Tree-Based Diversionary Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks. IEEE Access 2:633–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Li Y and Ren J(2010) Source-Location Privacy through Dynamic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks. Proc. IEEE INFOCOMGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zhang JD, Chow CY (2015) REAL: A Reciprocal Protocol for Location Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks. IEEE TransDependable Secure Comput 12(4):458–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bai L, Yan Y, Qian S (2017) A source-location privacy protection algorithm in WSNs based on node distance. Proc. 13th International Conference on Natural Computation, Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (ICNC-FSKD): 2772–2776Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tang D, Gu J, Yu Y, Yang Y, Han W, Ma X (2018) Source-Location Privacy Based on Dynamic Mix-Ring in Wireless Sensor Networks. Proc.International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC): Communications and Information Security Symposium: 327–331Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wang N, Zeng J(2017) All-Direction Random Routing for Source-Location Privacy Protecting against Parasitic Sensor Networks. Sensors 17(3)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lilian CM, Seokjoo S (2018) Strategic Location-Based Random Routing for Source Location Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 18(7)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Huang C, Ma M, Liu Y, Liu A(2017) Preserving Source Location Privacy for Energy Harvesting WSNs. Sensors 17(4)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Raja RA, Valli S (2017) An Approach to Defend Global Eavesdropper in Sensor Networks. Wirel Pers Commun 96(2):2761–2777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Darabkh KA, Al-Rawashdeh WS, Hawa M, Saifan R (2018) MT-CHR: A Modified Threshold-based Cluster Head Replacement Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Computers and Electrical Engineering,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compeleceng.2018.01.032, 2018
  56. 56.
    Anfeng L et al. (2013) Deployment guidelines for achieving maximum lifetime and avoiding energy holes in sensor network. Information Sciences: 197–226Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mamoun F. Al-Mistarihi
    • 1
  • Islam M. Tanash
    • 1
  • Fedaa S. Yaseen
    • 1
  • Khalid A. Darabkh
    • 2
  1. 1.Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringJordan University of Science and TechnologyIrbidJordan
  2. 2.Computer Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Technologythe University of JordanAmmanJordan

Personalised recommendations