Performance of Splitting LTE-WLAN Aggregation

  • Yi-Bing Lin
  • Hung-Chun Tseng
  • Li-Chang WangEmail author
  • Ling-Jyh Chen


LTE-WLAN aggregation (LWA) combines the radio resources of LTE and WLAN to take advantage of Wi-Fi’s high availability and indoor coverage, which provides better usage of both WLAN and LTE. In LWA, a user data radio bearer (DRB) is split if its packets are delivered through both LTE and Wi-Fi. For a split DRB, it is important to determine the LTE-to-WLAN ratio (LWR) or the ratio of packets delivered by LTE over WLAN. Based on WLAN’s Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), we propose a simple LWR selection rule. Using this rule, we describe a user plane implementation for LWA, where the adaptive LWA routing procedure can be easily implemented in the Radio Resource Management (RRM) and the Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) layer at the LTE eNB. In our implementation, the maximum LWA throughput is 99.14 percent of the optimal cases, and the packet loss rates are less than 0.0042 percent.


Data Radio Bearer (DRB) LTE-WLAN aggregation (LWA) LTE-to-WLAN ratio (LWR) Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) Split DRB 



This work was supported in part by Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) 106N490, 106-2221-E- 009-049-MY2, 107-2221-E-009-039, ``Center for Open Intelligent Connectivity” of National Chiao Tung University and Ministry of Education, Taiwan, R.O.C.


  1. 1.
    3GPP TR 36.889 v13.0.0 (2015-06), Study on Licensed-Assisted Access to Unlicensed SpectrumGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sirotkin S (2017) LTE-Wireless Aggregation (LWA): Benefits and Deployment Considerations. Intel White PaperGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lin Y-B, Shih Y-J, Chao P-W (2018) Design and implementation of LTE RRM with switched LWA policies. IEEE Trans Vehic Tech 67(2):1053–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mobile World Congress (2016) BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    3GPP TS 36.300 v13.4.0 (2016-06) Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) and Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN); Overall description; stage 2Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tu Y-K et al (2017) Deployment of the first commercial LWA service. IEEE Wirel Commun 24(6):6–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Industrial Technology Research Institute (2016) ITRI LTE-A Small Cell System and Smart Antenna Technology.
  8. 8.
    Texas Instrument. TCI6638K2K Multicore DSP+ARM KeyStone II System-on-Chip.
  9. 9.
    Texas Instruments (2012). Keystone Architecture Packet Accelerator (PA) User GuideGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Texas Instruments (2013) Keystone Architecture Security Accelerator (SA) User GuideGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    3GPP TS 29.281 v13.2.0 (2016-06) General Packet Radio System (GPRS) Tunnelling Protocol User Plane (GTPv1-U)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    3GPP TS 36.323 v13.2.0 (2016-07) Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specificationGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    3GPP TS 36.322 v13.2.0 (2016-07) Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Radio Link Control (RLC) specificationGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
    3GPP TS 36.331 v13.2.0 (2016-07) Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Radio Resource Control (RRC); Protocol specificationGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Computer ScienceNational Chiao Tung UniversityHsinchuTaiwan
  2. 2.Industrial Technology Research InstituteHsinchuTaiwan
  3. 3.Institute of Information Science, Academia SinicaTaipiTaiwan

Personalised recommendations