Mobile Networks and Applications

, Volume 23, Issue 6, pp 1563–1571 | Cite as

ICI Mitigation by Estimation of Double Carrier Frequency Offsets in High-Speed-Railway Communication Systems for Smart Cities

  • Vu Van YemEmail author
  • Trinh Thi Huong


The urbanization and the fourth industrial revolution lead to the explosion of smart cities. One of the most prior problems to solve in digital cities is transportation infrastructures and high speed railway (HSR) is an effective solution. In communication aspect of HSR, the passenger’s demand and transportation management networks require high-speed data services with reliable connections. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a modulation method in the advanced communication systems to provide broadband communications services. OFDM is substantial against inter-symbol-interference due to long symbol duration, but it is very sensitive to doppler effect that happens when the speed of the train is getting much faster. In addition, inter-carrier interference (ICI) caused by high doppler frequency shift has a severe impact on OFDM in case of high channel variations. In this paper, we propose an ICI mitigation method by utilizing the estimation and pre-compensation of high doppler shifts in HSR communication systems for smart cities. The estimate of the doppler shift is based on a preamble frame of data in communication link between EnodeB and user equipment. The simulation results show that the performance of system has been improved using the proposed model.


Doppler effect CFO OFDM HSR ICI Smart cities 


  1. 1.
    Bhagat SS, Shah PS, Patel ML (2014) Smart cities in context to urban development. International Journal of Civil, Structural, Environmental and Infrastructure Engineering Research and Development 4(1):41–48Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Xiong Z, Sheng H, Rong WG, Cooper DE (2012) Intelligent transportation systems for smart cities: a progress review. SCIENCE CHINA Inf Sci 55(12):2908–2914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Al-Dubai AY (2016) Reliable intelligent transportation systems for smart cities. In: 2 nd International Conference and Business Expo on Wireless & Telecommunication, Theme: Connecting People to Connecting Global. The Oberoi Centre, DubaiGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    UIC GSM-R Functional Group (2012) GSM-R functional requirement specification (FRS). UIC, Paris, France, UIC EIRENE Technology Report, UIC Code 950, version 7.3.0Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barbu, G. (2010) E-TRAIN-Broadband Communication with Moving Trains, Technical Report-Technology State of the Art. International Union of Railways, ParisGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fokum DT, Student Member (2010) A survey on methods for broadband internet access on trains. IEEE Commun Surv Tutorials 12:2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lannoo B, Colle D, Pickavet M, Demeester P (2007) Radio-over-fiber-based solution to provide broadband internet access to train passengers. IEEE Communications Magazine, Volume 45, Issue 2, 56-62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guan K, Zhong ZD, Ai B (2011) Assessment of LTE-R using high speed railway channel model. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Communications and Mobile Computing, pp. 461–464Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhao Y, Li J (2011) Analysis of the impact of Doppler spread on OFDM-based next-generation high-speed rail broadband mobile communications. IET International Conference on Communication Technology and Application (ICCTA 2011), pp. 116–120Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bai D, Nam W, Lee J, Kang I (2013) Comments on "a technique for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing frequency offset correction". IEEE Trans Commun 61(5):2109–2111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cao A, Xiao P, Tafazolli R (2014) Frequency offset estimation based on PRACH preambles in LTE. 2014 11th International Symposium on Wireless Communications Systems (ISWCS), Barcelona, pp 22–26Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xuan L, Lu H, Qingyang G (2015) Blind cancellation for frequency offset in OFDM system based on DBN network. 2015 10th International Conference on Communications and Networking in China (ChinaCom), Shanghai, pp 244–247Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yu JH, Su YT (2004) Pilot-assisted maximum-likelihood frequency-offset estimation for OFDM systems. IEEE Trans Commun 52(11):1997–2008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Roman T, Koivunen V (2005) Subspace method for blind CFO estimation for OFDM systems with constant modulus constellations. Proc. IEEE VTC, Stockholm, pp 1253–1257Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yang F, Li KH, Teh KC (2004) A carrier frequency offset estimation with minimum output variance for OFDM systems. IEEE CommunLett 8(11):677–679Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Van Zelst A, Schenk TCW (2004) Implementation of a MIMO OFDM based wireless LAN system. IEEE Trans on Signal Process 52(2):483–494MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Qiao J, Chen Q, Shen F, Jiang H, Li B (2013) An efficient carrier frequency offset estimate for MIMO-OFDM in LTE system. The Sixth International Workshop on Signal Design and Its Applications in Communications, Tokyo, pp 134–137Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Choi JW, Lee J, Zhao Q, Lou HL (2010) Joint ml estimation of frame timing and carrier frequency offset for OFDM systems employing time-domain repeated preamble. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun 9(1):311–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sun P, Zhang L (2009) Low complexity pilot aided frequency synchronization for OFDMA uplink transmissions. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun 8(7):3758–3769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bai L, Yin Q (2012) Frequency synchronization for the OFDMA uplink based on the tile structure of IEEE 802.16e. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 61(5):2348–2353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Besson O, Stoica P (2003) On parameter estimation of MIMO flat-fading channels with frequency offsets. IEEE Trans on Signal Processing 51(3):602–613MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zeng Y, Leyman RA, Ng TS (2007) Joint semi blind frequency offset and channel estimation for multiuser MIMO-OFDM uplink. IEEE Trans Commun 55(12):2270–2278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chen J, Su YC, Ma S, Ng TS (2008) Joint CFO and channel estimation for multiuser MIMO-OFDM systems with optimal training sequences. IEEE Trans on Signal Processing 56(8):4008–4019MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wu Y, Bergmans JWM, Attallah S (2011) Carrier frequency offset estimation for multiuser MIMO OFDM uplink using CAZAC sequences: performance and sequence optimization. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, Volume 2011, Number 1, 570-680Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jiang Y, Zhu X, Lim E, Huang Y, Lin H (2014) Low-complexity semi blind multi-CFO estimation and ICA-baed equalization for CoMP OFDM systems. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 63(4):1928–1934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Li S, Xiong J, Gui L, Xu Y (2013) A generalized analytical solution to channel estimation with Intersymbol interference cancelation and Co-Channel interference cancelation for single input single output/multiple input single output digital terrestrial multimedia broadcasting systems. IEEE Trans Broadcast 59(1):116–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Xiong J, Gui L, Liu H, Cheng P (2012) On channel estimation and equalization in 2x1 MISO TDS-OFDM based terrestrial DTVsystems. IEEE Trans Broadcast 58:130–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    ETSI TS 136 211 V8.6.0 (2009) Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical channels and modulation (3GPP TS 36.211 version 8.6.0 Release 8)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    El-Hajjar M, Hanzo L (2013) A survey of digital television broadcast transmission techniques. IEEE Commun Surv Tutorials 15(4):1924–1949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Liu H, Tureli U (1998) A high efficiency estimator for OFDM communications. IEEE Commun Lett 2:104–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018
corrected publication [January/2018]

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hanoi University of Science and TechnologyHanoiVietnam
  2. 2.University of Transport and CommunicationsHanoiVietnam

Personalised recommendations