Mobile Networks and Applications

, Volume 21, Issue 5, pp 825–845 | Cite as

Smart Clothing: Connecting Human with Clouds and Big Data for Sustainable Health Monitoring

  • Min Chen
  • Yujun Ma
  • Jeungeun SongEmail author
  • Chin-Feng Lai
  • Bin Hu


Traditional wearable devices have various shortcomings, such as uncomfortableness for long-term wearing, and insufficient accuracy, etc. Thus, health monitoring through traditional wearable devices is hard to be sustainable. In order to obtain healthcare big data by sustainable health monitoring, we design “Smart Clothing”, facilitating unobtrusive collection of various physiological indicators of human body. To provide pervasive intelligence for smart clothing system, mobile healthcare cloud platform is constructed by the use of mobile internet, cloud computing and big data analytics. This paper introduces design details, key technologies and practical implementation methods of smart clothing system. Typical applications powered by smart clothing and big data clouds are presented, such as medical emergency response, emotion care, disease diagnosis, and real-time tactile interaction. Especially, electrocardiograph signals collected by smart clothing are used for mood monitoring and emotion detection. Finally, we highlight some of the design challenges and open issues that still need to be addressed to make smart clothing ubiquitous for a wide range of applications.


Smart clothing Health monitoring Wearable computing Cloud computing Big data 



This work is supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (no. 2014CB744600), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 61572220). Thank Yixue Hao, Long Hu, Xiaobo Shi, Yongfeng Qian, Jun Yang, Ping Zhou, Wei Li, Yiming Miao, Lu Wang, Hang Ruan, Tong Han, Chuanbei Wu, Binjie Shi, Mengchen Liu, Chao Han, Zeru Wei, Yi Xu and Jiayi Lu to contribute in various aspects for building EPIC Smart Clothing testbed.


  1. 1.
    Ahn JH, Je JH (2012) Stretchable electronics: materials, architectures and integrations. J Phys D Appl Phys 45(10):103, 001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bauer UE, Briss PA, Goodman RA, Bowman BA (2014) Prevention of chronic disease in the 21st century: elimination of the leading preventable causes of premature death and disability in the usa. Lancet 384 (9937):45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Burdea G, Coiffet P (2003) Virtual reality technology. Presence Teleop Virt 12(6):663–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Caine N (2006) Elderly population health status survey. Qual Life Res 6(7-8):54–54Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    CDC (2015) The leading causes of death and disability in the united states.
  6. 6.
    Chao HC, Zeadally S, Hu B (2016) Wearable computing for health care. J Med Syst 40(4):1–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen M (2014) NDNC-BAN: supporting rich media healthcare services via named data networking in cloud-assisted wireless body area networks. Inf Sci 284:142–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chen M, Gonzalez S, Leung V, Zhang Q, Li M (2010) A 2g-rfid-based e-healthcare system. IEEE Wirel Commun 17(1):37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chen M, Gonzalez S, Vasilakos A, Cao H, Leung VC (2011) Body area networks: A survey. Mobile Netw Appl 16(2):171–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen M, Jin H, Wen Y, Leung V (2013a) Enabling technologies for future data center networking: a primer. IEEE Netw 27(4):8–15Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen M, Ma Y, Ullah S, Cai W, Song E (2013b) Rochas: robotics and cloud-assisted healthcare system for empty nester. In: Proceedings of the 8th international conference on body area networks, ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering), pp 217–220Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen M, Mao S, Liu Y (2014a) Big data: A survey. Mobile Netw Appl 19(2):171–209Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen M, Mao S, Zhang Y, Leung VC (2014b) Big data: related technologies, challenges and future prospects. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chen M, Wan J, González S, Liao X, Leung V (2014c) A survey of recent developments in home m2m networks. IEEE Commun Surv Tutorials 16(1):98–114Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chen M, Hao Y, Li Y, Lai CF, Wu D (2015a) On the computation offloading at ad hoc cloudlet: architecture and service modes. IEEE Commun Mag 53(6):18–24Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chen M, Hao Y, Li Y, Wu D, Huang D (2015b) Demo: Lives: Learning through interactive video and emotion-aware system. In: Proceedings of the 16th ACM international symposium on mobile ad hoc networking and computing, ACM, pp 399– 400Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chen M, Zhang Y, Hu L, Taleb T, Sheng Z (2015c) Cloud-based wireless network: Virtualized, reconfigurable, smart wireless network to enable 5g technologies. Mobile Netw Appl 20(6):704–712Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen M, Zhang Y, Li Y, Hassan M, Alamri A (2015d) Aiwac: affective interaction through wearable computing and cloud technology. IEEE Wirel Commun 22(1):20–27Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chen M, Zhang Y, Li Y, Mao S, Leung V (2015e) Emc: emotion-aware mobile cloud computing in 5g. IEEE Netw 29(2):32–38Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen M, Ma Y, Hao Y, Wu D, Zhang Y, Song E (2016) CP-Robot: Cloud-assisted Pillow Robot for Emotion Sensing and Interaction. In: EAI international conference on industrial IoT technologies and applications, EAI, p 13Google Scholar
  21. 21.
  22. 22.
    Costa R, Carneiro D, Novais P, Lima L, Machado J, Marques A, Neves J (2009) Ambient assisted living. In: 3rd symposium of ubiquitous computing and ambient intelligence 2008, Springer, pp 86–94Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Costanzo A, Faro A, Giordano D, Pino C (2016) Mobile cyber physical systems for health care: Functions, ambient ontology and e-diagnostics. In: 2016 13th IEEE annual consumer communications & networking conference (CCNC), IEEE, pp 972– 975Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ge XH, Yang B, Ye J, Mao G, Wang CX, Han T (2015) Spatial Spectrum and Energy Efficiency of Random Cellular Networks. IEEE Trans Commun 63(3):1019–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ha S, Lonkar K, Mittal A, Chang FK (2010) Adhesive layer effects on pzt-induced lamb waves at elevated temperatures. Struct Health Monit 9(3):247–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hassanalieragh M, Page A, Soyata T, Sharma G, Aktas M, Mateos G, Kantarci B, Andreescu S (2015) Health monitoring and management using internet-of-things (iot) sensing with cloud-based processing: Opportunities and challenges. In: 2015 IEEE international conference on services computing (SCC), IEEE, pp 285–292Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hemmerling TM, Le N (2007) Brief review: Neuromuscular monitoring: an update for the clinician. Can J Anesth 54(1):58–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hossain MS (2015) Cloud-supported cyber-physical localization framework for patients monitoring. IEEE Syst J PP(99):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hossain MS, Muhammad G (2016) Cloud-assisted Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) c Enabled framework for health monitoring. Comput Netw 101:192–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hossain MS, Muhammad G, Alhamid MF, Song B, Al-Mutib K (2016) Audio-visual emotion recognition using big data towards 5g. Mobile Netw Appl:1–11Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hu L, Qiu M, Song J, Hossain MS, Ghoneim A (2015) Software defined healthcare networks. IEEE Wirel Commun 22(6):67–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jaimes LG, Calderon J, Lopez J, Raij A (2015) Trends in mobile cyber-physical systems for health just-in time interventions. In: SoutheastCon 2015, IEEE, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jassas MS, Qasem AA, Mahmoud QH (2015) A smart system connecting e-health sensors and the cloud. In: 2015 IEEE 28th canadian conference on electrical and computer engineering (CCECE), IEEE, pp 712–716Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ji W, Frossard P, Chen BW, Chen Y (2015) Profit optimization for wireless video broadcasting systems based on polymatroidal analysis. IEEE Trans Multimedia 17(12):2310–2327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jing Q, Vasilakos AV, Wan J, Lu J, Qiu D (2014) Security of the internet of things: Perspectives and challenges. Wirel Netw 20(8):2481–2501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Juarez JM, Ochotorena JM, Campos M, Combi C (2015) Spatiotemporal data visualisation for homecare monitoring of elderly people. Artif Intell Med 65(2):97–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kan C, Chen Y, Leonelli F, Yang H (2015) Mobile sensing and network analytics for realizing smart automated systems towards health internet of things. In: 2015 IEEE international conference on automation science and engineering (CASE), IEEE, pp 1072–1077Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kim DH, Lu N, Ma R, Kim YS, Kim RH, Wang S, Wu J, Won SM, Tao H, Islam A et al (2011) Epidermal electronics. Science 333(6044):838–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kim RH (2015) Cure performance and effectiveness of portable smart healthcare wear system using electro-conductive textiles. Procedia Manuf 3:542–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lanata A, Valenza G, Nardelli M, Gentili C, Scilingo EP (2015) Complexity index from a personalized wearable monitoring system for assessing remission in mental health. IEEE J Biomedical Health Infor 19(1):132–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Li Y, Dai W, Ming Z, Qiu M (2016) Privacy protection for preventing data over-collection in smart city. IEEE Trans Comput 65(5):1339–1350MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lin K, Wang W, Wang X, Ji W, Wan J (2015) Qoe-driven spectrum assignment for 5g wireless networks using sdr. IEEE Wirel Commun 22(6):48–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lin K, Chen M, Deng J, Hassan MM, Fortino G (2016) Enhanced fingerprinting and trajectory prediction for iot localization in smart buildings. IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering PP (99):1–14. doi: 10.1109/TASE.2016.2543242 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Liu CH, Fan J, Branch JW, Leung KK (2014a) Toward qoi and energy-efficiency in internet-of-things sensory environments. IEEE Trans Emerging Topics Computing 2(4):473–487Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Liu CH, Leung KK, Gkelias A (2014b) A generic admission-control methodology for packet networks. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun 13(2):604–617Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Liu CH, Yang B, Liu T (2014c) Efficient naming, addressing and profile services in internet-of-things sensory environments. Ad Hoc Netw 18:85–101Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Liu CH, Zhao J, Zhang H, Guo S, Leung KK, Crowcroft J (2016) Energy-efficient event detection by participatory sensing under budget constraints. IEEE Syst J PP(99):1–12Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Liu J, Wang Q, Wan J, Xiong J, Zeng B (2013) Towards key issues of disaster aid based on wireless body area networks. TIIS 7(5):1014–1035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Liu KC, Chan CT, Hsu SJ (2015) A confidence-based approach to hand movements recognition for cleaning tasks using dynamic time warping. In: 2015 IEEE 12th international conference on wearable and implantable body sensor networks (BSN), IEEE, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lobelo F, Kelli HM, Tejedor SC, Pratt M, McConnell MV, Martin SS (2016) The wild wild west: A framework to integrate mhealth software applications and wearables to support physical activity assessment, counseling and interventions for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Progress in cardiovascular diseasesGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ma H (2011) Internet of things: Objectives and scientific challenges. J Comput Sci Technol 26(6):919–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ma H, Liu L, Zhou A, Zhao D (2015a) On networking of internet of things: Explorations and challenges. IEEE Internet Things J PP(99):1–1Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ma Y, Liu CH, Alhussein M, Zhang Y, Chen M (2015b) Lte-based humanoid robotics system. Microprocess Microsyst 39(8):1279–1284Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ma Y, Zhang Y, Dung OM, Li R, Zhang D (2015c) Health internet of things: Recent applications and outlook. J Intell Technol 16(2):351–362Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Majeed Q, Hbail H, Chalechale A (2015) A comprehensive mobile e-healthcare system. In: 2015 7th conference on information and knowledge technology (IKT), IEEE, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Moradi E, Koski K, Hasani M, Rahmat-Samii Y, Ukkonen L (2015) Antenna design considerations for far field and near field wireless body-centric systems. In: 2015 IEEE international conference on computational electromagnetics (ICCEM), IEEE, pp 59–60Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Moser LE, Melliar-Smith P (2015) Personal health monitoring using a smartphone. In: 2015 IEEE international conference on mobile services (MS), IEEE, pp 344–351Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Murali S, Rincon Vallejos FJ, Atienza Alonso D (2015) A wearable device for physical and emotional health monitoring. In: Computing in cardiology 2015, vol 42, pp 121–124Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    MWC 2016 (2016) Mobile world congress.
  60. 60.
    National Bureau of Statistics of China (2013) National finance health care spending.
  61. 61.
    National Bureau of Statistics of China (2014) National finance health care spending.
  62. 62.
    Ohta Y, Tamura H (2014) Mixed reality: merging real and virtual worlds. Springer Publishing Company, IncorporatedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Páez DG, de Buenaga Rodríguez M, Sánz EP, Villalba MT, Gil RM (2015) Big data processing using wearable devices for wellbeing and healthy activities promotionCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Peng L (2016) On the future integrated datacenter networks: Designs, operations, and solutions. Opt Switch Netw 19(Part 2):58–65. doi: 10.1016/j.osn.2015.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Peng L, Youn CH, Tang W, Qiao C (2012) A novel approach to optical switching for intradatacenter networking. J Lightwave Technol 30(2):252–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Peng LM, Youn CH, Qiao C (2013) Theoretical analyses of lightpath blocking performance in co-ofdm optical networks with/without spectrum conversion. IEEE Commun Lett 17(4):789–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Poon CC, Lo BP, Yuce MR, Alomainy A, Hao Y (2015) Body sensor networks: In the era of big data and beyond. IEEE Rev Biomed Eng 8:4–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Raghu D, Peter H (2013) Printed, organic & flexible electronics forecasts, players & opportunities 2010-2020Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Rodgers MM, Pai VM, Conroy RS (2015) Recent advances in wearable sensors for health monitoring. IEEE Sensors J 15(6):3119–3126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Shao R (2012) Chronic diseases and health promotion. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Sheng Z, Fan J, Liu CH, Leung V, Liu X, Leung KK (2015) Energy-efficient relay selection for cooperative relaying in wireless multimedia networks. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 64(3):1156–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Smart Fabrics & Wearable Technology (2015) The 11th edition of smart fabrics & wearable technology conference.
  73. 73.
    Song Z, Liu CH, Wu J, Ma J, Wang W (2014) Qoi-aware multi-task-oriented dynamic participant selection with budget constraints. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 63(9):4618–4632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sultan N (2015) Reflective thoughts on the potential and challenges of wearable technology for healthcare provision and medical education. Int J Inf Manag 35(5):521–526MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Tabas I, Glass CK (2013) Anti-inflammatory therapy in chronic disease: challenges and opportunities. Science 339(6116):166–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Tunstall-Pedoe H (2006) Preventing chronic diseases. a vital investment: Who global report. Int J Epidemiol 35(4):1107– 1107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Varshney U (2014) Mobile health: Four emerging themes of research. Decis Support Syst 66:20–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wan J, Yan H, Liu Q, Zhou K, Lu R, Li D (2013a) Enabling cyber–physical systems with machine–to–machine technologies. Int J Ad Hoc Ubiquitous Comput 13(3-4):187–196Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wan J, Zou C, Ullah S, Lai CF, Zhou M, Wang X (2013b) Cloud-enabled wireless body area networks for pervasive healthcare. IEEE Netw 27(5):56–61Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wan J, Zhang D, Sun Y, Lin K, Zou C, Cai H (2014a) Vcmia: a novel architecture for integrating vehicular cyber-physical systems and mobile cloud computing. Mobile Netw Appl 19(2):153–160Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Wan J, Zhang D, Zhao S, Yang L, Lloret J (2014b) Context-aware vehicular cyber-physical systems with cloud support: architecture, challenges, and solutions. IEEE Commun Mag 52(8):106–113Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wang H, Peng D, Wang W, Sharif H, Chen HH, Khoynezhad A (2010) Resource-aware secure ecg healthcare monitoring through body sensor networks. IEEE Wirel Commun 17(1):12–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Wang H, Wu S, Chen M, Wang W (2014) Security protection between users and the mobile media cloud. IEEE Commun Mag 52(3):73–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Wang J, Qiu M, Guo B (2015) High reliable real-time bandwidth scheduling for virtual machines with hidden markov predicting in telehealth platform. Futur Gener Comput Syst 49:68– 76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wilkinson RG, Marmot MG (2003) Social determinants of health: the solid facts. World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    World Health Organization (2014) Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2014.
  87. 87.
    World Health Organization (2015) World Report on Ageing and Health. World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Yamada T, Hayamizu Y, Yamamoto Y, Yomogida Y, Izadi-Najafabadi A, Futaba DN, Hata K (2011) A stretchable carbon nanotube strain sensor for human-motion detection. Nat Nanotechnol 6(5):296–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Yu F, Zhao Y, Gu J, Quigley KL, Chi NC, Tai YC, Hsiai TK (2012) Flexible microelectrode arrays to interface epicardial electrical signals with intracardial calcium transients in zebrafish hearts. Biomed Microdevices 14(2):357–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Yurur O, Liu CH, Moreno W (2014) A survey of context-aware middleware designs for human activity recognitions. IEEE Commun Mag 52(6):24–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Yurur O, Liu CH, Sheng Z, Leung VCM, Moreno W, Leung KK (2016) Context-awareness for mobile sensing: A survey and future directions. IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials Letters 18(1):68–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Zhang B, Song Z, Liu CH, Ma J, Wang W (2015a) An event-driven qoi-aware participatory sensing framework with energy and budget constraints. ACM Trans Intell Syst Technol 6(3):42Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Zhang Y, Chen M, Mao S, Hu L, Leung V (2014) Cap: Community activity prediction based on big data analysis. IEEE Netw 28(4):52–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Zhang Y, Qiu M, Tsai CW, Hassan MM, Alamri A (2015b) Health-cps: Healthcare cyber-physical system assisted by cloud and big data. IEEE Systems Journal PP(99):1–8Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Zhang Y, Chen M, Huang D, Wu D, Li Y (2016) idoctor: Personalized and professionalized medical recommendations based on hybrid matrix factorization. Futur Gener Comput SystGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Zhang Z, Wang H, Wang C, Fang H (2013) Interference mitigation for cyber-physical wireless body area network system using social networks. IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing 1(1):121–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Zhang Z, Wang H, Wang C, Fang H (2015c) Cluster-based epidemic control through smartphone-based body area networks. IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst 26(3):681–690Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Zhou L, Hu R, Qian Y, Chen HH (2013) Energy-spectrum efficiency tradeoff for video streaming over mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 31(5):981–991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Zhou L, Yang Z, Wang H, Guizani M (2014) Impact of execution time on adaptive wireless video scheduling. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 32(4):760–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Zhu N, Diethe T, Camplani M, Tao L, Burrows A, Twomey N, Kaleshi D, Mirmehdi M, Flach P, Craddock I (2015) Bridging e-health and the internet of things: The sphere project. IEEE Intell Syst 30(4):39–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Min Chen
    • 1
  • Yujun Ma
    • 1
  • Jeungeun Song
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chin-Feng Lai
    • 2
  • Bin Hu
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Computer Science and TechnologyHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and Information EngineeringNational Chung Cheng UniversityChiaYiTaiwan
  3. 3.School of Information Science and EngineeringLanzhou UniversityLanzhouChina

Personalised recommendations