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An update on human periapical cyst-mesenchymal stem cells and their potential applications in regenerative medicine

Abstract

The broad clinical applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) in the regenerative medicine field is attributed to their ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cellular lineages. Nowadays, MSCs can be derived from a variety of adult and fetal tissues including bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord and placenta. The difficulties associated with the isolation of MSCs from certain tissues such as bone marrow promoted the search for alternative tissues which are easily accessible. Oral derived MSCs include dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), dental follicle progenitor cells (DFPC), and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC). Being abundant and easily accessible, oral derived MSCs represent an interesting alternative MSC type to be employed in regenerative medicine. Human periapical cyst-mesenchymal stem cells (hPCy–MSCs) correspond to a newly discovered and characterized MSC subtype. Interestingly, hPCy–MSCs are collected from periapical cysts, which are a biological waste, without any influence on the other healthy tissues in oral cavity. hPCy–MSCs exhibit cell surface marker profile similar to that of other oral derived MSCs, show high proliferative potency, and possess the potential to differentiate into different cell types such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and neurons-like cells. hPCy–MSCs, therefore, represent a novel promising MSCs type to be applied in regenerative medicine domain. In this review, we will compare the different types of dental derived MSCs, we will highlight the isolation technique, the characteristics, and the therapeutic potential of hPCy–MSCs.

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Correspondence to Mohammad Fayyad-kazan.

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Ayoub, S., Berbéri, A. & Fayyad-kazan, M. An update on human periapical cyst-mesenchymal stem cells and their potential applications in regenerative medicine. Mol Biol Rep (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-05298-6

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Keywords

  • Stem cells
  • Regenerative medicine
  • Clinical applications