Genome-wide association mapping for adult resistance to powdery mildew in common wheat
- 138 Downloads
Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat powdery mildew disease, can occur at all stages of the crop and constantly threatens wheat production. To identify candidate resistance genes for powdery mildew, we performed GWAS (genome-wide association studies) on a total set of 329 wheat varieties obtained from different origins. These wheat materials were genotyped using wheat 90K SNP array and evaluated for their resistance in either field or glasshouse condition from 2016 to 2018. Using a mixed linear model, 33 SNP markers of which 14 QTL (quantitative trait loci) were later defined were observed to associate with powdery mildew resistance. Among these, QTL on chromosome 3A, 3B, 6D and 7D were concluded as potentially new QTL. Exploration of candidate genes for new QTL suggested roles of these genes involved in encoding disease resistance and defence-related proteins, and regulating early immune response to the pathogen. Overall, the results reveal that GWAS can be an effective means of identifying marker-trait associations, though further functional validation and fine-mapping of gene candidates are required before creating opportunities for developing new resistant genotypes.
KeywordsWheat Powdery mildew Marker-trait association Single nucleotide polymorphism Quantitative trait loci
We would like to thank Dr. Ross Corkrey for providing valuable suggestions on statistical analysis.
YK conducted the phenotyping for the 2017 and 2108 studies performed the GWAS analysis and drafted the manuscript. FC conducted the phenotyping for the 2016 study. KB contributed to editing the manuscript. MZ conceived the study, generated the genotyping data and critically reviewed the mauscript.
This work was supported by the Grains Research and Development Corporation of Australia, Grant UT00030 and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2019QNA6022).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest.
- 2.Bennett FGA (1984) Resistance to powdery mildew in wheat—a review of its use in agriculture and breeding programs. Plant Pathol 33:279–300. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.1984.tb01324.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.Flor HH (1971) Current status of the gene-for-gene concept. Annu Rev Phytopathol 9:275–296. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.py.09.090171.001423 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Lillemo M, Asalf B, Singh RP, Huerta-Espino J, Chen XM, He ZH, Bjornstad A (2008) The adult plant rust resistance loci Lr34/Yr18 and Lr46/Yr29 are important determinants of partial resistance to powdery mildew in bread wheat line Saar. Theor Appl Genet 116:1155–1166. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-008-0743-1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 9.Niks RE, Qi XQ, Marcel TC (2015) Quantitative resistance to biotrophic filamentous plant pathogens: concepts, misconceptions, and mechanisms. Annu Rev Phytopathol 53:445–470. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080614-115928 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 13.Huang XH, Han B (2014) Natural variations and genome-wide association studies in crop plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 65(65):531–551. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-arplant-050213-035715 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 22.McIntosh RA, Dubcovsky J, Rogers WJ, Morris C, Appels R, Xia XC (2014). Catalogue of gene symbols for wheat: 2013–2014 (supplement). https://shigen.nig.ac.jp/wheat/komugi/genes/macgene/supplement2013.pdf. Accessed 6 Dec 2019
- 23.McIntosh RA, Dubcovsky J, Rogers WJ, Morris C, Appels R, Xia XC (2016). Catalogue of gene symbols for wheat: 2015–2016 (Supplement). https://shigen.nig.ac.jp/wheat/komugi/genes/macgene/supplement2015.pdf. Accessed 6 Dec 2019
- 24.McIntosh RA, Dubcovsky J, Rogers WJ, Morris C, Xia XC (2017). Catalogue of gene symbols for wheat: 2017 (Supplement). https://shigen.nig.ac.jp/wheat/komugi/genes/macgene/supplement2017.pdf. Accessed 6 Dec 2019
- 31.R Core Team (2014) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/. Accessed 6 Dec 2019
- 34.Ginestet C (2011) ggplot2: elegant graphics for data analysis. J R Stat Soc Ser A (Stat Soc) 174:245. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-985X.2010.00676_9.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 43.Tsepilov YA, Ried JS, Strauch K, Grallert H, van Duijn CM, Axenovich TI, Aulchenko YS (2013) Development and application of genomic control methods for genome-wide association studies using non-additive models. PLoS ONE 8:e81431. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081431 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 61.Hsam SLK, Lapochkina IF, Zeller FJ (2003) Chromosomal location of genes for resistance to powdery mildew in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell.). 8. Gene Pm32 in a wheat-Aegilops speltoides translocation line. Euphytica 133:367–370. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1025738513638 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 70.Chen Y, Zhang ZY, Li HJ, Liu ZY, Veisz O, Vida G (2011) Pm44, a new gene for powdery mildew resistance on the short arm of wheat chromosome 3A. (Draft manuscript)Google Scholar
- 80.Chen LH, Tsai HC, Yu PL, Chung KR (2017) A major facilitator superfamily transporter-mediated resistance to oxidative stress and fungicides requires Yap1, Skn7, and MAP kinases in the citrus fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata. PLoS ONE 12:e0169103. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169103 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 81.Lin HC, Chen LH, Yu PL, Tsai HC, Chung KR (2018) A major facilitator superfamily transporter regulated by the stress-responsive transcription factor Yap1 is required for resistance to fungicides, xenobiotics and oxidants and full virulence in Alternaria alternata. Front Microbiol 9:2229. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02229 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 84.Roohparvar R, De Waard MA, Kema GHJ, Zwiers LH (2007) MgMfs1, a major facilitator superfamily transporter from the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola, is a strong protectant against natural toxic compounds and fungicides. Fungal Genet Biol 44:378–388. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fgb.2006.09.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 86.Balakireva AV et al (2018) Proteomics analysis reveals that caspase-like and metacaspase-like activities are dispensable for activation of proteases involved in early response to biotic stress in Triticum aestivum L. Int J Mol Sci 19:3991. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123991 CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 95.Andersen EJ, Shaw SR, Nepal MP (2015) Genome-wide identification of disease resistance genes in Aegilops tauschii Coss. (Poaceae). In: 100th Annual Meeting of the South-Dakota-Academy-of-Science, Oacoma, SD, Apr 10–11 2015. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science. pp 281–295Google Scholar