Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 47, Issue 2, pp 1471–1483 | Cite as

Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) among Enterobacteriales in Latin America: a systematic review

  • Denize Cristina Vieira
  • William Gustavo Lima
  • Magna Cristina de PaivaEmail author


The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes have changed the resistance pattern to quinolones, especially among Enterobacteriales. The dissemination of these genes in Latin American countries, where the prescription of fluoroquinolones is high, has been described in several studies; however, no review of the impact of PMQR in this continent has been conducted. This review summarized current knowledge about the circulation of PMQR among Enterobacteriales in Latin American. After the search and selection, 61 articles were included in the study. Most of studies reported PMQR genes among Enterobacteriales from human (47/61, 77%) and animal (18/61, 29.5%) samples, recovered mainly in Brazil (23/61, 37.7%), Mexico (11/61, 18%), and Uruguay (7/61, 11.5%). Nine different PMQR genes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qnrD, qnrE, aac-(6′)-Ib-cr, oqxA, oqxB, and qepA) were found in Latin America, with aac (6′)-Ib-cr (37/61, 60.6%) and qnrB (26/61, 42.6%) being the most frequently reported. Escherichia coli (40/61, 65.6%) was the species most frequently reported to carry a PMQR gene, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (24/61, 39.3%), Enterobacter cloacae (15/61, 24.6%), and Salmonella spp. (14/61, 22.9%). Thus, this review provides important information which might help in designing measures to control the spread of quinolone resistance determinants on this continent.


Gram-negative bacilli Fluorquinolones aac(6´)-Ib-cr qnr oqxAB qepA 



The authors would like to thank the UFSJ/PPGCF and UFMG/Departamento de Produtos Farmacêuticos for the availability of bibliographic support. V.R.M.O is grateful to Pró Reitoria de Pesquisa e Pós Graduação (PROPE/UFSJ) for the opportunity to undertake scientific initiation. W.G.L. is grateful to Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal do Nível Superior (CAPES) for a Ph.D. fellowship.

Author contribuitions

All authors contributed to the development, analysis and drafting of this article.



Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors report that they do not have any conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

11033_2019_5220_MOESM1_ESM.docx (90 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 90 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratório de Diagnóstico Laboratorial e Microbiologia ClínicaCampus Centro Oeste Dona Lindu/Universidade Federal de São João Del-ReiDivinópolisBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Produtos Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Campus PampulhaUniversidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil

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