Chlorogenic acid prevents hepatotoxicity in arsenic-treated mice: role of oxidative stress and apoptosis
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Arsenic is a potent and toxic heavy metal found in the environment that causes health problems, including liver disease, in humans and animals. Chlorogenic acid (CA) is the most abundant caffeoylquinic acid isomer present in plants. This study aims to assess how CA protects the liver tissue following sodium arsenite (NaAsO2)-induced toxicity in mice. Male Swiss mice were allocated into 5 groups: Control, intragastrically administered CA (200 mg/kg), intragastrically administered NaAsO2 (5 mg/kg), and two groups administered with CA (100 and 200 mg/kg) and NaAsO2. CA was administered 30 min before NaAsO2 and all the mice were treated daily for 28 days. To investigate the biochemical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular changes, blood and liver samples were collected. NaAsO2 treatment increased the liver function biomarkers such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin. Lipid and nitric oxide production was elevated. Glutathione content and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase decreased, indicating a disturbance in redox homeostasis. Histopathological examination revealed a granular degeneration of hepatocytes, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and centrilobular hepatocyte necrosis. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β were upregulated upon NaAsO2 treatment, suggesting the induction of inflammation. Moreover, NaAsO2 triggered apoptosis in the liver by upregulating Bax and caspase-3 and downregulating Bcl-2. However, CA abrogated the biochemical, molecular, and histological changes, reflecting its hepatoprotective role in response to NaAsO2 treatment. Our findings demonstrate that CA could be a potential therapeutic to minimize NaAsO2-induced hepatic injury.
KeywordsSodium arsenite Chlorogenic acid Oxidative stress Hepatic inflammation Apoptosis Mice
This study was supported by Research Supporting Project (RSP-2019/23), King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
All the authors contributed equally to this work.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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