Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 46, Issue 6, pp 6215–6230 | Cite as

Temporal changes in physiological and molecular markers in various brain regions following transient global ischemia in rats

  • Monika Kapoor
  • Sheetal Sharma
  • Rajat Sandhir
  • Bimla NehruEmail author
Original Article


Several mechanisms are involved in the loss of cellular integrity and tissue destructions in various brain regions during ischemic insult. The affected brain employs various self-repair mechanisms during the poststroke recovery. Therefore, the current study involves time course changes in different brain regions following ischemia in terms of inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis for which a bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion model was chosen. The development of oxidative stress was seen with a marked increase in ROS and NO levels with concomitant decrease in GSH levels and also the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes. These alterations were accompanied with decreased levels of neurotransmitters and motor and cognitive deficits at various time points. Increased expressions of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and a decline in BDNF levels in hippocampal regions on 7th day post ischemia, suggesting their role in its pathogenesis. The restoration of BDNF and neurotransmitter levels along with significant decline in inflammatory cytokine levels 14th day onwards following ischemia in hippocampus suggested poststroke recovery. The extent of neuronal damage was found to be increased significantly on 7th day post ischemia as indicated by TUNEL assay and hematoxylin and eosin staining depicting enhanced number of pyknotic neurons in cortical and hippocampal regions. Cortical regions of the ischemic brains were severely affected while hippocampal regions showed significant poststroke recovery, which might attributed to the normalization of BDNF and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. In conclusion, the present study established the central role of BDNF and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the poststroke recovery. Also, the cortical and hippocampal regions were found to be more susceptible for ischemic injury. As our results indicated, full recovery after ischemic injury in different brain regions was not achieved, therefore further studies with long-term recovery time are required to be conducted.

Graphic abstract


Inflammation Transient cerebral ischemia Oxidative stress Memory dysfunction Neurotransmitters 



Transient global cerebral ischemia


Reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species








5,5′-Dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)


Triphenyltetrazolium chloride


Electrochemical detector


Transfer latency


Brain derived neurotrophic factor


Least significant difference



The study was carried out with the funds provided by Department of Science & Technology/Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research (DST/INSPIRE), India with IF no. IF130058.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors do not have any conflict of interest in the manuscript.

Ethical approval

The authors have read and abided by the statement of the ethical standards for manuscripts submitted to this journal.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyArmed Forces Medical CollegePuneIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiophysicsPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia
  3. 3.Department of BiochemistryPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

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