One of the main aims of bone tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell therapy is development of an optimal artificial environment (scaffold) that can trigger a favorable response within the host tissue, it is well colonized by resident cells of organism and ideally, it can be in vitro pre-colonized by cells of interest to intensify the process of tissue regeneration. The aim of this study was to develop an effective tool for regenerative medicine, which combines the optimal bone-like scaffold and colonization technique suitable for cell application. Accordingly, this study includes material (physical, chemical and structural) and in vitro biological evaluation of scaffolds prior to in vivo study. Thus, porosity, permeability or elasticity of two types of bone-like scaffolds differing in the ratio of collagen type I and natural calcium phosphate nanoparticles (bCaP) were determined, then analyzes of scaffold interaction with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were performed. Simultaneously, dynamic seeding using a perfusion bioreactor followed by static cultivation was compared with standard static cultivation for the whole period of cultivation. In summary, cell colonization ability was estimated by determination of cell distribution within the scaffold (number, depth and homogeneity), matrix metalloproteinase activity and gene expression analysis of signaling molecules and differentiation markers. Results showed, the used dynamic colonization technique together with the newly-developed collagen-based scaffold with high content of bCaP to be an effective combined tool for producing bone grafts for bone implantology and regenerative medicine.
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This study was supported by project 15-25813A awarded by the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic and PROGRES Q26 provided by Charles University, Czech Republic. Special thanks go to Blanka Bilkova for her technical assistance.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
All experiments were carried out according to the guidelines for the care and use of experimental animals and approved by the Resort Professional Commission of the Czech Academy of Sciences for Approval of Projects of Experiments on Animals (Approved protocol No 32/2015 and 53/2015).
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