Conus striatus venom exhibits non-hepatotoxic and non-nephrotoxic potent analgesic activity in mice

  • Rofel Vincent S. Jagonia
  • Rejemae G. Dela Victoria
  • Lydia M. Bajo
  • Roger S. TanEmail author
Rapid Communication


Constant research into the pharmaceutical properties of marine natural products has led to the discovery of many potentially active agents considered worthy of medical applications. Genus Conus, which approximately comprises 700 species, is currently under every researcher’s interest because of the conopeptides in their crude venom. Conopeptides have a wide range of pharmacological classes and properties. This research focused on the crude venom of Conus striatus to assess its analgesic activity, mutagenicity, nephrotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity in mice. The crude venom was extracted from the conus snails and the protein concentration was determined using Bradford’s method. The analgesic activity of the venom was determined using the hot-plate method and standard IFCC method was used to determine the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Evaluation of mutagenicity was done using micronucleus assay and the nephrotoxicity of the venom was determined using Kidney Coefficient and serum creatinine concentration. The maximum tolerable dose (MTD) of the crude venom was found to be 75 ppm. The venom exhibited potent analgesic activity even higher than the positive control (Ibuprofen). Most of the analgesic drugs can usually impact damage in the liver and kidneys. However, AST and ALT results revealed that the venom has no adverse effects on the liver. Although the venom increased the incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes, making it mutagenic, with MTD concentration’s mutagenicity comparable to the positive control methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The kidney coefficients, on the other hand, showed no significant difference between the treated groups and that of the untreated group. The serum creatinine also showed a concentration-dependent increase; with MTD treated mice got the highest creatinine concentration. However, MTD/2 and MTD/4 showed no significant difference in creatinine levels with respect to the untreated groups. Hence, the nephrotoxicity of the venom was only evident when used at higher concentration. The venom exhibited potent analgesic activity indicated that the C. striatus crude venom extract could have a potential therapeutic component as analgesic drugs that displayed no hepatic damage. This study also suggests that for this venom to be utilized for future medical applications, their usage must be regulated and properly monitored to avoid nephrotoxic effect.


Conus striatus Mutagenicity Nephrotoxicity Hepatotoxicity Analgesic AST ALT 



RVSJ and RGDV contributed equally to this research. The authors would like to acknowledge Enjelyn C. Gomez of the MSU-IIT Chemistry Department for the assistance in performing the assays and to the Chemistry Department of De La Salle University.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declared no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, College of Science and MathematicsMindanao State University-Iligan Institute of TechnologyTibanga Iligan CityPhilippines
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, College of ScienceDe La Salle UniversityManilaPhilippines

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