High levels of heavy metals in Western Arabian Gulf mangrove soils
Major development along the Western Arabian Gulf coast has disturbed the marine environment, and led to increased concentrations of heavy metals in the coastal soils. The amount of 13 of these metals (Ag, Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) in Avicennia marina branches and leaves as well as in rhizosphere soil samples from two Bays 70 km apart (Tarut Bay; Saudi Arabia and Tubli Bay; Bahrain) was quantified. Heavy metal concentration in the two bays were similar and higher than those reported in other regions suggesting a generalized heavy metal pollution in the area. These concentrations are much higher than the international permissible limits of soil contaminations except for Iron and Manganese which were within the limits. The results indicate that marine environments in the area need recovery plans and monitoring.
KeywordsAvicennia marina Contaminants Stabilization Bio-concentration factor Biogeochemical processes
I am thankful to Science College Research Units at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University (IAU), for providing chemicals and analyzing samples in ICP unit, in particular Norah Alnaim and Amnah Alharbi, as well as, my intern student Alanoud Alyami.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The author declares that she has no conflict of interest.
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