Gallic and vanillic acid suppress inflammation and promote myelination in an in vitro mouse model of neurodegeneration
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Neuroinflammation affects millions of people around the world as a result of injury or stress. Neuroinflammation represents almost all types of neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurodegenerative diseases comprise demyelination and synaptic loss. The inflammatory response is further propagated by the activation of glial cells and modulation of constitutively expressed extracellular matrix proteins. The aim of the present study was to identify the anti-inflammatory effects of purified compounds gallic acid (GA, 1.0 µM) and vanillic acid (VA, 0.2 µM) on the lysolecithin (LPC, 0.003%)-induced model of inflammation. Hippocampal neurons were co-cultured with glial cells, and LPC was added to induce inflammation. Neurite outgrowth was measured by morphometry software. The level of myelination and demyelination was identified by immunostaining and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting techniques using different antibodies. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were used to observe the sustained repetitive firing pattern. The data showed that GA and VA significantly increased the neurite outgrowth after 48 h in culture. Both compounds significantly reduced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, NFκB, tenascin-C, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes in the LPC-induced model of inflammation. The level of myelin protein in neurites and oligodendrocyte cell bodies was significantly upregulated by GA and VA treatment. The reduction in sustained repetitive firing in the LPC-induced model of inflammation was reversed by both GA and VA treatment. This study supports the hypothesis that VA and GA have anti-inflammatory activities and could be regarded as potential treatments for neurodegenerative disease.
KeywordsLysolecithin CNS injury Remyelination GA VA ECM proteins
The authors are gratified for the Research Grant # 2680 provided by Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interests.
The experiments were performed to the Protocol 2015-0007, assigned by Advisory Committee on Animal Standards, ICCBS, University of Karachi.
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