The effects of bisphosphonates on osteonecrosis of jaw bone: a stem cell perspective
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Bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw (BIONJ) is a commonly encountered side effect of Bisphosphonates (BPs). Although certain aspects of BIONJ have been studied, the effects of BPs on the proliferation, differentiation, and maintenance of dental stem cells (DSC) in way that might account for development of BIONJ have not been evaluated. In the current study, Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs), Periodontal Stem Cells (PDLSCs), and human Tooth Germ Stem Cells (hTGSCs) were characterized and then each stem cell type were treated with selected BPs: Zoledronate (ZOL), Alendronate (ALE), and Risedronate (RIS). Negative effect on osteogenesis capacity of DSCs has not been observed after differentiation experiments in vitro. BPs exerted inhibitory effect on the migratory capacities of stem cells confirmed by in vitro scratch assay analysis. Angiogenesis of endothelial cells was blocked by BPs treatment in tube formation analysis. In conclusion, inhibitory effects of BPs on migration capacity of DSCs localized in close proximity to the jaw bone might be the primary reason for the side effects of BPs in the development of BIONJ process. Therefore, further in vivo evidence is required to investigate DSC properties in BP treated animals which might elucidate the importance of DSCs in BIONJ formation.
KeywordsBPs BIONJ DSCs Osteogenesis Migration Angiogenesis
This study was supported by Yeditepe University. The authors would like to thank Dr. Neslihan Taşlı for her guidance during the experimental stages and Dr. Aslı Hızlı Deniz for her assistance during writing stages.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors deny any conflict of interest.
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