Hemp (Marijuana) reverted Copper-induced toxic effects on the essential fatty acid profile of Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala
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Heavy metals pollution affects the nutritive value of fish. This study examined if the inclusion of dietary hempseed (HS) and hempseed oil (HO) in the diet of the fish could revert the copper-induced toxic effects on muscle fatty acid profile of rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala). Fingerlings of both species were exposed to a sub-lethal concentration of copper i.e., 20% of LC50 (1.34 ppm for rohu and 1.52 ppm for mrigal) for 96 h for 30 days. Following exposure, fish were maintained on graded levels of HO (1, 2 and 3%) or on HS (5, 10 and 15%) for 50 days. Copper exposure showed a significant effect on the fatty acid composition of both species; increased their saturated (SFA) to unsaturated (USFA) and altered their omega-3/omega-6 (ω-3/ω-6) ratios. However, feeding graded levels of hempseed products reverted the toxic effects of copper on the fatty acid profile of both the species, significantly increased muscle total fatty acid contents, improved ω-3/ω-6 ratios, and decreased SFA / USFA ratio in % inclusion dependent manner. Furthermore, hempseed product showed a species-specific effect on USFA. The ω-3/ω-6 ratios decreased in the muscle of C. mrigala whereas an increasing trend with an increase in hempseed product % inclusion was observed in L. rohita. Moreover, HS showed a higher impact on both species as compared to HO. With the findings of this study, hempseed product could be recommended as a feed ingredient for enhancing the essential fatty acid contents of fish which in turn can have a good impact on consumer health.
KeywordsFish Copper Toxicity Hempseed supplementation Essential fatty acids profile
We would like to thank Mr. Muhammad Akram, Senior scientific officer, PCSIR for facilitation and guidance during sample analysis.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
The research was conducted by following compliance with ethical standards provided by society for the prevention of cruelty to animals (SPCA) of Pakistan. The current study was approved by the ethical board of Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad Pakistan. The ethical approval was obtained from the “Bioethical Committee of the Faculty of Biological Sciences on the use of animals for Scientific Research”, and the ethical approval number granted for this study was BEC-FBS-QAU2017-67.
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