Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 45, Issue 5, pp 987–1000 | Cite as

Historical records under the genetic evidence: “Chiriguano” tribe genesis as a test case

  • Andrea Sala
  • Mariela Caputo
  • Santiago Ginart
  • Graciela Theiler
  • María Laura Parolin
  • Raúl Francisco Carnese
  • Leonardo Fainboim
  • Daniel Corach
Original Article


Historical records suggest that Chiriguano tribe is the result of a genetic admixture event. The process involved the arrival of Guaraní tribesmen descending from Amazonian region of Brazil along with groups of Arawak origin that inhabited the foothill plains of Bolivia. Later they arrived in Argentina at the beginning of the twentieth century. Aiming to test the historical records, we analysed a set of 46 samples collected at San Ramon de la Nueva Orán, Province of Salta, Argentina. A wide set of uni- and biparentally transmitted genetic markers were analysed, including 23 autosomal STRs; 46 AIM-DIPs and 24 AIM-SNPs all located at diverse autosomal chromosome locations; 23 Y-STRs and the entire mtDNA D-Loop sequence. Ancestry informative markers allowed for the detection of a strong Native American component in the genomes (> 94%), while all mtDNA haplotypes showed Native American characteristic motives, and 93% of Y-haplotypes belonged to the Q1a3a Y-haplogroup. The analysis of mitochondrial haplotypes and Y chromosome, although they did not match other populations, revealed a relationship between the Chiriguano and other groups of Guaraní and Arawak origin inhabiting Brazil and Bolivia, confirming, at least in part, the historical records describing the origins of Chiriguano tribal settlements in northwestern Argentina.


Chiriguano Population genetics Native American-admixture 



This work was partly supported, by Grants UBACyT 20020130100783BA and CONICET PIP11220150100349 CO.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that the are no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (PDF 54 KB)
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Supplementary material 2 (PDF 348 KB)
11033_2018_4246_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (118 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (PDF 117 KB)
11033_2018_4246_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (177 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (PDF 177 KB)


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cátedra de Genética Forense y Servicio de Huellas Digitales Genéticas, Departamento de Microbiología, Inmunología y Biotecnología, Facultad de Farmacia y BioquímicaUniversidad de Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.CONICET-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y TecnológicasBuenos AiresArgentina
  3. 3.Instituto de Inmunología, Genética y Metabolismo (INIGEM-CONICET), Hospital de Clínicas “José de San Martín”University of Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina
  4. 4.Instituto de Diversidad y Evolución Austral (IDEAus) CCT CENPAT-CONICETPuerto MadrynArgentina
  5. 5.Sección Antropología Biológica, Instituto de Ciencias AntropológicasUniversidad de Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina

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