Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 40, Issue 7, pp 4257–4267 | Cite as

HLA genetic profile of Mapuche (Araucanian) Amerindians from Chile

  • Diego Rey
  • Carlos Parga-Lozano
  • Juan Moscoso
  • Cristina Areces
  • Mercedes Enriquez-de-Salamanca
  • Mercedes Fernández-Honrado
  • Sedeka Abd-El-Fatah-Khalil
  • Javier Alonso-Rubio
  • Antonio Arnaiz-VillenaEmail author


Amerindian Mapuche (Araucanians) are now living in Chile and Argentina at both sides of Andean Mountains. They are anthropologically and genetically different from southernmost South America Patagonian Amerindians. Most of the HLA alleles found in our Mapuche sample are frequent or very frequent in North and South America Amerindians: (1) Class I: A*02:01, A*03:01, A*68:01, B*39:09, B*51:01, (2) Class II: DRB1*03:01, DRB1*04:03, DRB1*07:01, DRB1*08:02, DRB1*14:02, DRB1*16:02. One of the nine most frequent extended haplotypes seems to be from European origin, suggesting the existence of a degree of admixture with Europeans in our Mapuche sample. It has been calculated of about 11 % admixture. Three of the extended haplotypes are also found in other Amerindians and five of them are newly found in Mapuche Amerindians: A*68:01-B*39:09-DRB1*08:02-DQB1*04:02; A*68:01-B*51:01-DRB1*04:03-DQB1*03:02; A*29:01-B*08:01-DRB1*03:01-DQB1*02:01; A*02:01-B*15:01-DRB1*04:03-DQB1*03:02; A*33:01-B*14:02-DRB1*07:01-DQB1*03:03. The medical importance of calculating HLA profile is discussed on the diagnostic (HLA and disease) and therapeutical bases of HLA pharmacogenomics and on the construction of a virtual transplantation HLA list profile. Also, anthropological conclusions are drawn.


Amerindians Mapuche HLA Pharmacogenomics Transplantation Anthropology 



This work was supported in part by grants from the Spanish Ministry of Health (FISS PI080838 and PI11/00807) and three different Mutua Madrileña Automovilista grants.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diego Rey
    • 1
  • Carlos Parga-Lozano
    • 1
  • Juan Moscoso
    • 1
  • Cristina Areces
    • 1
  • Mercedes Enriquez-de-Salamanca
    • 1
  • Mercedes Fernández-Honrado
    • 2
  • Sedeka Abd-El-Fatah-Khalil
    • 2
  • Javier Alonso-Rubio
    • 1
  • Antonio Arnaiz-Villena
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Departament of Immunology, School of MedicineThe Madrid Regional Blood Center, University ComplutenseMadridSpain
  2. 2.Department of Hematology, School of MedicineThe Madrid Regional Blood Center, University ComplutenseMadridSpain

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