Advertisement

Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 2757–2762 | Cite as

DNA sequence analysis to guide the release of blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna, Psittaciformes, Aves) from the illegal trade back into the wild

  • Gislaine A. Fernandes
  • Renato Caparroz
Article

Abstract

The illegal wildlife trade is one of the major threats to Brazil’s biodiversity. Approximately 80 % of illegally captured animals are birds, and 4 % of those are parrots. Although many seized birds do not survive, those that are recovered may be returned to the wild. The release of seized individuals into the wild should be conducted with caution, as local populations may suffer adverse effects if genetically different individuals are introduced. In this study, we evaluated the genetic relationships between 13 illegally captured blue-and-yellow macaws selected for release in northeastern Goiás, Brazil, and previously studied Brazilian macaw populations. We identified the seized macaws that were genetically similar to those from northwestern Goiás and that were therefore most suitable for release in that area. The genetic relationship was evaluated by sequence analysis of 403 bp of mitochondrial DNA control region. Relationships between mitochondrial haplotypes were computed via a median-joining network. Only six of the seized macaws were closely related to the macaws of northeastern Goiás, indicating that those macaws were potential candidates for release in that area. However, the release of these birds should follow all technical recommendations required by the Brazilian environmental authorities.

Keywords

Ara ararauna Conservation Illegal trade Macaw Mitochondrial DNA Parrot 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are very grateful to Eduardo Barros for technical assistance in bird sampling, Dr. Cristina Y. Miyaki for providing primers and samples, Dr. Mariana Pires de Campos Telles and Leo Caetano da Silva for technical support and suggestions, and two anonymous reviewers for their comments. This study was supported by Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Estado de Goiás/FAPEG–PRONEX chamada 07/2009.

References

  1. 1.
    IUCN (2012). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed 11 Feb 2012
  2. 2.
    Snyder N, McGowan P, Gilardi J, Grajal A (1999) Parrots: status survey and conservation action plan. International Union for the Conservation of Nature, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hemley G (1994) International wildlife trade: a CITES source book. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    RENCTAS (2001) 1° relatório nacional sobre o tráfico de fauna silvestre. Brasília: rede nacional de combate ao tráfico de animais silvestres (RENCTAS). http://www.renctas.org.br/files/REL_RENCTAS_pt_final.pdf. Accessed 2 Feb 2012
  5. 5.
    Rocha FM (1995) Tráfico de animais silvestres no Brasil—Fundo Mundial para a Natureza (WWF). Discussion documentGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    ProFauna (2008). Pirated parrots: ProFauna’s investigation of the Indonesian parrot smuggling to the Philippines. ProFauna Indonesia & RSPCA, Jakarta, Indonesia. http://www.profauna.org. Accessed 2 Feb 2012
  7. 7.
    Edmands S (2007) Between a rock and a hard place: evaluating the relative risks of inbreeding and outbreeding for conservation and management. Mol Ecol 16:463–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Frankham R, Ballou JD, Eldridge MDB, Lacy RC, Ralls K, Dudash MR, Fenster CB (2011) Predicting the probability of outbreeding depression. Conserv Biol 25:465–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Endler JA (1977) Geographic variation, speciation and clines. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ogden R, Dawnay N, McEwing R (2009) Wildlife DNA forensics—bridging the gap between conservation genetics and law enforcement. Endanger Species Res 9. doi: 10.3354/esr00144
  11. 11.
    Primmer CR, Koskinen MT, Piironen J (2000) The one that did not get away: individual assignment using microsatellite data detects a case of fishing competition fraud. Proc R Soc Lond B 267:1699–1704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wu H, Wan QH, Fang SG, Zhang SY (2005) Application of mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis in the forensic identification of Chinese sika deer subspecies. Forensic Sci Int 148:101–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Manel S, Berthier P, Luikart G (2002) Detecting wildlife poaching: identifying the origin of individuals using bayesian assignment tests and multi-locus genotypes. Conserv Biol 16:650–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Forshaw JM (1989) The parrots of the world, 3rd edn. Lansdowne, Willoughby, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Collar NJ (1997) Family Psittacidae (parrots). In: Hoyo JD, Elliot A, Sargatal J (eds) Handbook of the birds of the world, vol 4. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, pp 280–477Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Caparroz R, Miyaki CY, Baker AJ (2009) Contrasting phylogeographic patterns in mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites: evidence of female philopatry and male-biased gene flow among regional populations of the blue-and-yellow macaw (Psittaciformes: ara ararauna) in Brazil. Auk 126:359–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bruford MW, Hanotte O, Brookfield JFY, Burke T (1992) Single-locus and multilocus DNA fingerprinting. In: Hoezel AR (ed) Molecular genetic analysis of populations: a practical approach. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 225–269Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG (1997) The CLUSTAL_X Windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucl Acids Res 25:4876–4882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S (2007) MEGA4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol 24:1596–1599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bandelt HJ, Forster P, Rohl A (1999) Median-joining networks for inferring intraspecific phylogenies. Mol Biol Evol 16:37–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Johnson MS (2000) Measuring and interpreting genetic structure to minimize the genetic risks of translocations. Aquac Res 31:133–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Efe MA, Martins-Ferreira C, Olmos F, Mohr LV, Silveira LF (2006) Diretrizes da sociedade brasileira de ornitologia para a destinação de aves silvestres provenientes do tráfico e cativeiro. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 14:67–72Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratório de Genética e Biodiversidade, Departamento de Biologia GeralInstituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de GoiásGoiâniaBrazil
  2. 2.Faculdade UnB Planaltina, Universidade de BrasíliaPlanaltinaBrazil

Personalised recommendations