Soft tissue sarcoma and the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome: formulation of an hypothesis
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Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a genetic disorder caused by mutation in one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2) which predisposes to colorectal cancer and other malignances, that not yet include sarcomas. For sustaining that soft tissue sarcomas could be HNPCC related malignances, we report on a HNPCC patient with leiomyosarcoma and review the English literature. Overall, we report on eleven cases of soft tissue malignant tumors involving HNPCC patients, with a mean age of 34 years at diagnosis of sarcomas. In the majority of these tumors loss of MSH2 expression can be found at immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in 10 patients a germline mutation in one of the MMR genes was found (7 cases were MSH2 defective and 3 cases MLH1 defective). Data for supporting our hypothesis are also experimental, epidemiologic, histopathological: excess of sarcomas in PMS2 defective mice; sporadic soft tissue sarcomas are rare, with mean age at onset of 56 years and normal IHC for MMR proteins. In conclusion, the data collected support the hypothesis that soft tissue sarcomas could be included in the spectrum of tumors that, even if rarely, depend on MMR genes deficiency.
KeywordsSarcoma Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer hMSH2
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