Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 39, Issue 7, pp 7727–7741 | Cite as

Croatian national reference Y-STR haplotype database

  • Gordan MršićEmail author
  • Branka Gršković
  • Andro Vrdoljak
  • Maja Popović
  • Ivica Valpotić
  • Šimun Anđelinović
  • Vlastimil Stenzl
  • Edvard Ehler
  • Ludvik Urban
  • Gordana Lacković
  • Peter Underhill
  • Dragan Primorac


A reference Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) haplotype database is needed for Y-STR match interpretation as well as for national and regional characterization of populations. The aim of this study was to create a comprehensive Y-STR haplotype database of the Croatian contemporary population and to analyze substructure between the five Croatian regions. We carried out a statistical analysis of the data from previously performed genetic analyses collected during routine forensic work by the Forensic Science Centre “Ivan Vučetić”. A total of 1,100 unrelated men from eastern, western, northern, southern and central Croatia were selected for the purpose of this study. Y-STRs were typed using the AmpFISTR Yfiler PCR amplification kit. Analysis of molecular variance calculated with the Y chromosome haplotype reference database online analysis tool included 16 population samples with 20,247 haplotypes. A total of 947 haplotypes were recorded, 848 of which were unique (89.5%). Haplotype diversity was 0.998, with the most frequent haplotype found in 9 of 1,100 men (0.82%). Locus diversity varied from 0.266 for DYS392 to 0.868 for DYS385. Discrimination capacity was 86.1%. Our results suggested high level of similarity among regional subpopulations within Croatia, except for mildly different southern Croatia. Relative resemblance was found with Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. Whit Atheys’ Haplogroup Predictor was used to estimate the frequencies of Y-chromosome haplogroups. I2a, R1a, E1b1b and R1b haplogroups were most frequent in all Croatian regions. These results are important in forensics and contribute to the population genetics and genetic background of the contemporary Croatian population.


Y-chromosome Short tandem repeat Population genetics Haplotypes Haplogroups Croatian population 



This study was funded by the Ministry of Interior of Croatia. The authors thank Sunčica Papić, BSc, Marija Valić, BSc and Siniša Merkaš, BSc for technical support. Special thanks to Professor Lutz Roewer and Sascha Willuweit, MSc as well as Assistant Professor Ozren Polašek, MD, PhD for statistical analysis and support in the creation of this manuscript.

Supplementary material

11033_2012_1610_MOESM1_ESM.xls (184 kb)
Supplementary Table 1. Y-STR haplotypes in five Croatian regions (XLS 185 kb)
11033_2012_1610_MOESM2_ESM.tif (728 kb)
Figure S1. Median-Joining network of Y-chromosomal E1b1 haplogroup in Croatian population (n = 118). Markedly separated cluster is identified right below. (TIFF 729 kb)
11033_2012_1610_MOESM3_ESM.tif (992 kb)
Figure S2. Median-Joining network of Y-chromosomal I2a haplogroup in Croatian population (n = 416). The MJN graph for haplogroup I2a was the most compact and the majority of haplotypes create cluster. All haplotypes belonged to subhaplogroup I2a (xI2a1). The unique one (“C31”) belonged to subhaplogroup I2a1. This haplotype is situated at the top and is connected with the graph center by the longest join. (TIFF 992 kb)
11033_2012_1610_MOESM4_ESM.tif (514 kb)
Figure S3. Median-Joining network of Y-chromosomal I2b1 haplogroup in Croatian population (n = 14). The haplogroup I2b1 is relatively less saturated, eventhough, two main subhaplogroups are distinguished. (TIFF 514 kb)
11033_2012_1610_MOESM5_ESM.tif (533 kb)
Figure S4. Median-Joining network of Y-chromosomal J haplogroup in Croatian population (n = 81).The MJN graph of J haplogroup consists of separated clusters of J2b (below), J2a1b (three haplotypes in the center), J2a1h (the majority of haplotypes located in the graph center), J2a1b (upper part of the graph) and J1 (eleven haplotypes at the top). (TIFF 533 kb)
11033_2012_1610_MOESM6_ESM.tif (283 kb)
Figure S5. Median-Joining network of Y-chromosomal N haplogroup in Croatian population (n = 7). The MJN graph of N haplogroup consisted of two separated clusters. (TIFF 283 kb)
11033_2012_1610_MOESM7_ESM.tif (711 kb)
Figure S6. Median-Joining network of Y-chromosomal R1a haplogroup in Croatian population (n = 243). The MJN graph of R1a haplogroup showed very abundant cluster in upper part of the graph. (TIFF 711 kb)
11033_2012_1610_MOESM8_ESM.tif (734 kb)
Figure S7. Median-Joining network of Y-chromosomal R1b haplogroup in Croatian population (n = 87). The MJN graph of R1B haplogroup is characterized by typical star structure. (TIFF 735 kb)
11033_2012_1610_MOESM9_ESM.tif (541 kb)
Figure S8. Median-Joining network of Y-chromosomal G2a haplogroup in Croatian population (n = 30). The MJN graph of G2a haplogroup is characterized by several entirely different branches. Remarkably, a lower number of haplotypes from eastern and southern Croatia are present in this graph when compared to previous ones. (TIFF 541 kb)


  1. 1.
    Butler JM (2003) Recent developments in Y-short tandem repeat and Y-single nucleotide polymorphism analysis. Forensic Sci Rev 15:91–111Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Roewer L (2009) Y chromosome STR typing in crime casework. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 5:77–84. doi: 10.1007/s12024-009-9089-5 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Allor C, Einum DD, Scarpetta M (2005) Identification and characterization of variant alleles at CODIS STR loci. J Forensic Sci 50:1128–1133. doi: 10.1520/JFS2005024 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lovrečić L, Ristić S, Brajenović B, Kapović M, Peterlin B (2005) Human Y-specific STR haplotypes in the Western Croatian population sample. Forensic Sci Int 149(2–3):257–261. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.06.026 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ljubković J, Stipisić A, Sutlović D, Definis-Gojanović M, Bucan K, Anđelinović Š (2008) Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat haplotypes in southern Croatian male population defined by 17 loci. Croat Med J 49(2):201–206. doi: 10.3325/cmj.2008.2.201 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barać L, Peričić M, Klarić IM, Janićijević B, Parik J, Rootsi S, Rudan P (2003) Y chromosome STRs in Croatians. Forensic Sci Int 138(1–3):127–133. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2003.09.004 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Haliti N, Carapina M, Masić M, Strinović D, Klarić IM, Kubat M (2009) Evaluation of population variation at 17 autosomal STR and 16 Y-STR haplotype loci in Croatians. Forensic Sci Int Genet 3(4):e137–e138. doi: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2008.11.004 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barać L, Peričić M, Klarić IM, Rootsi S, Janićijević B, Kivisild T, Parik J, Rudan I, Villems R, Rudan P (2003) Y chromosomal heritage of Croatian population and its island isolates. Eur J Hum Genet 11(7):535–542. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200992 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Peričić M, Barać Lauc L, Martinović Klarić I, Janićijević B, Rudan P (2005) Review of Croatian genetic heritage as revealed by mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomal lineages. Croat Med J 46(4):502–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gršković B, Mršić G, Vrdoljak A, Merkaš S, Anđelinović Š (2010) Population genetic analysis of haplotypes based on 17 short tandem repeat loci on Y chromosome in population sample from eastern Croatia. Croat Med J 51(3):202–208. doi: 10.3325/cmj.2010.51.202 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gršković B, Mršić G, Polašek O, Vrdoljak A, Merkaš S, Anđelinović Š (2011) Population data for 17 short tandem repeat loci on Y chromosome in northern Croatia. Mol Biol Rep 38(3):2203–2209. doi: 10.1007/s11033-010-0349-y PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gršković B, Mršić G, Polašek O, Vrdoljak A, Merkaš S, Anđelinović Š (2011) Genetic polymorphisms of 17 short tandem repeat loci on Y chromosome in central Croatian population. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 7(2):155–161. doi: 10.1007/s12024-010-9216-3 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Walsh PS, Metzger DA, Higuchi R (1991) Chelex 100 as a medium for simple extraction of DNA for PCR-based typing from forensic material. Biotechniques 10:506–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Willuweit S, Roewer L (2007) Y chromosome haplotype reference database (YHRD): update. Forensic Sci Int Genet 1(21):83–87. doi: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2007.01.017 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Excoffier L, Laval G, Schneider S (2005) Arlequin (version 3.0): an integrated software package for population genetics data analysis. Evol Bioinform Online 1:47–50Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kayser M, Caglià A, Corach D, Fretwell N, Gehrig C, Graziosi G, Heidorn F, Herrmann S, Herzog B, Hidding M, Honda K, Jobling M, Krawczak M, Leim K, Meuser S, Meyer E, Oesterreich W, Pandya A, Parson W, Penacino G, Perez-Lezaun A, Piccinini A, Prinz M, Schmitt C, Roewer L et al (1997) Evaluation of Y-chromosomal STRs: a multicenter study. Int J Legal Med 10(3):125–133. doi: 10.1007/s004140050051 141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Roewer L, Croucher PJP, Willuweit S, Lu TT, Kayser M, Lessig R, De Knijff P, Jobling MA, Tyler Smith C, Krawczak M (2005) Signature of recent historical events in the European Y-chromosomal STR haplotype distribution. Hum Genet 116(4):279–291. doi: 10.1007/s00439-004-1201-z PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Robino C, Gino S, Ricci U, Grignani P, Previdere C, Torre C (2002) Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in an Albanian population sample. Forensic Sci Int 129(2):128–130. doi: 10.1016/S0531-5131(02)00550-2 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bosch E, Calafell F, Gonzalez Neira A, Flaiz C, Mateu E, Scheil HG, Huckenbeck W, Efremovska L, Mikerezi I, Xirotiris N, Grasa C, Schmidt H, Comas D (2006) Paternal and maternal lineages in the Balkans show a homogeneous landscape over linguistic barriers, except for the isolated Aromuns. Ann Hum Genet 70(Pt 4):459–487. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2005.00251.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Marjanovic D, Fornarino S, Montagna S, Primorac D, Hadziselimovic R, Vidovic S, Pojskic N, Battaglia V, Achilli A, Drobnic K, Andjelinovic S, Torroni A, Santachiara Benerecetti AS, Semino O (2005) The peopling of modern Bosnia-Herzegovina: Y-chromosome haplogroups in the three main ethnic groups. Ann Hum Genet 69(Pt 6):757–763. doi: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00190.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zaharova B, Andonova S, Gilissen A, Cassiman JJ, Decorte R, Kremensky I (2001) Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in three major population groups in Bulgaria. Forensic Sci Int 124(2–3):182–186. doi: 10.1016/S0379-0738(01)00597-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zastera J, Roewer L, Willuweit S, Sekerka P, Benesova L, Minarik M (2010) Assembly of a large Y-STR haplotype database for the Czech population and investigation of its substructure. Forensic Sci Int Genet 4(3):e75–e78. doi: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.06.005 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Henke J, Henke L, Chatthopadhyay P, Kayser M, Dulmer M, Cleef S, Poche H, Felske Zech H (2001) Application of Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes to forensic genetics. Croat Med J 42(3):292–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hidding M, Schmitt C (2000) Haplotype frequencies and population data of nine Y-chromosomal STR polymorphisms in a German and a Chinese population. Forensic Sci Int 113(1–3):47–53. doi: 10.1016/S0379-0738(00)00261-9 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Roewer L, Krawczak M, Willuweit S, Nagy M, Alves C, Amorim A, Anslinger K, Augustin C, Betz A, Bosch E, Caglia A, Carracedo A, Corach D, Dekairelle AF, Dobosz T, Dupuy BM, Furedi S, Gehrig C, Gusmao L, Henke J, Henke L, Hidding M, Hohoff C, Hoste B, Jobling MA, Kargel HJ, De Knijff P, Lessig R, Liebeherr E, Lorente M, Martinez Jarreta B, Nievas P, Nowak M, Parson W, Pascali VL, Penacino G, Ploski R, Rolf B, Sala A, Schmidt U, Schmitt C, Schneider PM, Szibor R, Teifel Greding J, Kayser M (2001) Online reference database of European Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes. Forensic Sci Int 118(2–3):106–113. doi: 10.1016/S0379-0738(00)00478-3 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Junge A, Madea B (1999) Population studies of the Y-chromosome specific polymorphisms DYS19, DYS389 I + II, DYS390 and DYS393 in a western German population (Bonn area). Forensic Sci Int 101(3):195–201. doi: 10.1016/S0379-0738(99)00029-8 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schmidt U, Meier N, Lutz S (2003) Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a population sample from southwest Germany (Freiburg area). Int J Legal Med 117(4):211–217. doi: 10.1007/s00414-003-0373-8 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Immel UD, Kleiber M, Klintschar M (2005) Y chromosome polymorphisms and haplotypes in South Saxony-Anhalt (Germany). Forensic Sci Int 155(2–3):211–215. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.01.004 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rodig H, Grum M, Grimmecke HD (2007) Population study and evaluation of 20 Y-chromosome STR loci in Germans. Int J Legal Med 121(1):24–27. doi: 10.1007/s00414-005-0075-5 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lessig R, Edelmann J (1998) Y chromosome polymorphisms and haplotypes in west Saxony (Germany). Int J Legal Med 111(4):215–218. doi: 10.1007/s004140050155 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schneider PM, Meuser S, Waiyawuth W, Seo Y, Rittner C (1998) Tandem repeat structure of the duplicated Y-chromosomal STR locus DYS385 and frequency studies in the German and three Asian populations. Forensic Sci Int 97(1):61–70. doi: 10.1016/S0379-0738(98)00146-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kayser M, Lao O, Anslinger K, Augustin C, Bargel G, Edelmann J, Elias S, Heinrich M, Henke J, Henke L, Hohoff C, Illing A, Jonkisz A, Kuzniar P, Lebioda A, Lessig R, Lewicki S, Maciejewska A, Monies DM, Pawłowski R, Poetsch M, Schmid D, Schmidt U, Schneider PM, Stradmann Bellinghausen B, Szibor R, Wegener R, Wozniak M, Zoledziewska M, Roewer L, Dobosz T, Ploski R (2005) Significant genetic differentiation between Poland and Germany follows present-day political borders, as revealed by Y-chromosome analysis. Hum Genet 117(5):428–443. doi: 10.1007/s00439-005-1333-9 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hohoff C, Dewa K, Sibbing U, Hoppe K, Forster P, Brinkmann B (2007) Y-chromosomal microsatellite mutation rates in a population sample from northwestern Germany. Int J Legal Med 121(5):359–363. doi: 10.1007/s00414-006-0123-9 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Anslinger K, Keil W, Weichhold G, Eisenmenger W (2000) Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a population sample from Bavaria. Int J Legal Med 113(3):189–192. doi: 10.1007/s004140050296 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Furedi S, Woller J, Padar Z, Angyal M (1999) Y-STR haplotyping in two Hungarian populations. Int J Legal Med 113(1):38–42. doi: 10.1007/s004140050276 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Völgyi A, Zalán A, Szvetnik E, Pamjav H (2009) Hungarian population data for 11 Y-STR and 49 Y-SNP markers. Forensic Sci Int Genet 3(2):e27–e28. doi: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2008.04.006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Beer Z, Csete K, Varga T (2004) Y-chromosome STR haplotype in Szekely population. Forensic Sci Int 139(2–3):155–158. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2003.10.010 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Spiroski M, Arsov T, Kruger C, Willuweit S, Roewer L (2005) Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in Macedonian population samples. Forensic Sci Int 148(1):69–73. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.04.067 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bosch E, Calafell F, Gonzalez Neira A, Flaiz C, Mateu E, Scheil HG, Huckenbeck W, Efremovska L, Mikerezi I, Xirotiris N, Grasa C, Schmidt H, Comas D (2006) Paternal and maternal lineages in the Balkans show a homogeneous landscape over linguistic barriers, except for the isolated Aromuns. Ann Hum Genet 70(Pt 4):459–487. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2005.00251.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ferri G, Ceccardi S, Lugaresi F, Bini C, Ingravallo F, Cicognani A, Falconi M, Pelotti S (2008) Male haplotypes and haplogroups differences between urban (Rimini) and rural area (Valmarecchia) in Romagna region (North Italy). Forensic Sci Int 175(2–3):250–255. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2007.06.007 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cerri N, Verzeletti A, Bandera B, De Ferrari F (2005) Population data for 12 Y-chromosome STRs in a sample from Brescia (northern Italy). Forensic Sci Int 152(1):83–87. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.02.006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Presciuttini S, Caglia A, Alu M, Asmundo A, Buscemi L, Caenazzo L, Carnevali E, Carra E, De Battisti Z, De Stefano F, Domenici R, Piccinini A, Resta N, Ricci U, Pascali VL (2001) Y-chromosome haplotypes in Italy: the GEFI collaborative database. Forensic Sci Int 122(2–3):184–188. doi: 10.1016/S0379-0738(01)00500-X PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ferri G, Alú M, Corradini B, Radheshi E, Beduschi G (2008) Slow and fast evolving markers typing in Modena males (North Italy). Forensic Sci Int Genet 3(2):e31–e33. doi: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2008.05.004 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Grignani P, Peloso G, Fattorini P, Previdere C (2000) Highly informative Y-chromosomal haplotypes by the addition of three new STRs DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439. Int J Legal Med 114(1–2):125–129. doi: 10.1007/s004140000153 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Onofri V, Alessandrini F, Turchi C, Fraternale B, Buscemi L, Pesaresi M, Tagliabracci A (2007) Y-chromosome genetic structure in sub-Apennine populations of Central Italy by SNP and STR analysis. Int J Legal Med 121(3):234–237. doi: 10.1007/s00414-007-0153-y PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Turrina S, Atzei R, De Leo D (2006) Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a Northeast Italian population sample using 17plex loci PCR assay. Int J Legal Med 120(1):56–59. doi: 10.1007/s00414-005-0054-x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pepinski W, Niemcunowicz Janica A, Ptaszynska Sarosiek I, Skawronska M, Koc Zorawska E, Janica J, Soltyszewski I (2004) Population genetics of Y-chromosome STRs in a population of Podlasie, Northeastern Poland. Forensic Sci Int 144(1):77–82. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.02.024 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ploski R, Wozniak M, Pawlowski R, Monies DM, Branicki W, Kupiec T, Kloosterman A, Dobosz T, Bosch E, Nowak M, Lessig R, Jobling MA, Roewer L, Kayser M (2002) Homogeneity and distinctiveness of Polish paternal lineages revealed by Y chromosome microsatellite haplotype analysis. Hum Genet 110(6):592–600. doi: 10.1007/s00439-002-0728-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pawlowski R, Dettlaff Kakol A (2003) Population data of nine Y-chromosomal STR loci in northern Poland. Forensic Sci Int 131(2–3):209–213. doi: 10.1016/S0379-0738(02)00415-2 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rebala K, Szczerkowska Z (2005) Polish population study on Y chromosome haplotypes defined by 18 STR loci. Int J Legal Med 119(5):303–305. doi: 10.1007/s00414-005-0547-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wolańska Nowak P, Branicki W, Parys Proszek A, Kupiec T (2009) A population data for 17 Y-chromosome STR loci in South Poland population sample—some DYS458.2 variants uncovered and sequenced. Forensic Sci Int Genet 4(1):e43–e44. doi: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.04.009 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Barbarii LE, Rolf B, Dermengiu D (2003) Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a Romanian population sample. Int J Legal Med 117(5):312–315. doi: 10.1007/s00414-003-0397-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Veselinovic IS, Zgonjanin DM, Maletin MP, Stojkovic O, Djurendic Brenesel M, Vukovic RM, Tasic MM (2008) Allele frequencies and population data for 17 Y-chromosome STR loci in a Serbian population sample from Vojvodina province. Forensic Sci Int 176(2–3):e23–e28. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2007.04.003 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rebala K, Mikulich AI, Tsybovsky IS, Sivakova D, Dzupinkova Z, Szczerkowska Dobosz A, Szczerkowska Z (2007) Y-STR variation among Slavs: evidence for the Slavic homeland in the middle Dnieper basin. J Hum Genet 52(5):406–414. doi: 10.1007/s10038-007-0125-6 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ghiani ME, Vona G (2002) Y-chromosome-specific microsatellite variation in a population sample from Sardinia (Italy). Coll Antropol 26(2):387–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Robino C, Inturri S, Gino S, Torre C, Di Gaetano C, Crobu F, Romano V, Matullo G, Piazza A (2006) Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in Sicily. Forensic Sci Int 159(2–3):235–240. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.05.015 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sterlinko H, Pajnic IZ, Balazic J, Komel R (2001) Human Y-specific STR haplotypes in a Slovenian population sample. Forensic Sci Int 120(3):226–228. doi: 10.1016/S0379-0738(01)00390-5 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Slatkin M (1995) A measure of population subdivision based on microsatellite allele frequencies. Genetics 139:457–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Athey TW (2005) Haplogroup prediction from Y-STR values using an allele-frequency approach. J Genet Geneal 1:1–7Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Athey TW (2006) Haplogroup prediction from Y-STR values using a Bayesian-allele frequency approach. J Genet Geneal 2:34–39Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Muzzio M, Raallo V, Motti JMB, Santos MR, Camelo JL, Bailliet G (2011) Software for Y-haplogroup predictions: a word of caution. Int J Legal Med 125:143–147. doi: 10.1007/s00414-009-0404-1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bandelt HJ, Forster P, Sykes BC, Richards MB (1995) Mitochondrial portraits of human populations using median networks. Genetics 141:743–753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bandelt HJ, Forster P, Rohl A (1999) Median-joining networks for inferring intraspecific phylogenies. Mol Biol Evol 16:37–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Huson DH, Bryant D (2006) Application of phylogenetic networks in evolutionary studies. Mol Biol Evol 23(2):254–267. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msj030 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wilkes J (1995) The Illyrians. Blackwell, LondonGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bosch E, Calafell F, González-Neira A, Flaiz C, Mateu E, Schneil HG, Huckenbeck W, Efremovska L, Mikerezi I, Xirotiris N, Grasa C, Schmidt H, Comas D (2006) Paternal and maternal lineages in the Balkans show a homogeneous landscape over linguistic barriers, except for the isolated Aromuns. Ann Hum Genet 70(Pt 4):459–487. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2005.00251.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gusmão L, Butler JM, Carracedo A, Gill P, Kayser M, Mayr WR, Morling N, Prinz M, Roewer L, Tyler-Smith C, Schneider PM, DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (2006) DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG): an update of the recommendations on the use of Y-STRs in forensic analysis. Forensic Sci Int 157(2–3):187–197. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.04.002 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Roewer L (2003) The Y-Short Tandem Repeat Haplotype Reference database (YHRD) and male population stratification in Europe—impact on forensic genetics. Forensic Sci Rev 15(2):164–170Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Myres NM, Ritchie KH, Lin AA, Hughes RH, Woodward SR, Underhill PA (2009) Y-chromosome short tandem repeat intermediate variant alleles DYS392.2, DYS449.2, and DYS385.2 delineate new phylogenetic substructure in human Y-chromosome haplogroup tree. Croat Med J 50(3):239–249. doi: 10.3325/cmj.2009.50.239 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Klaić N (1971) Povijest Hrvata u ranom srednjem vijeku. Školska knjiga, ZagrebGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Battaglia V, Fornarino S, Al-Zahery N, Olivieri A, Pala M, Myres NM, King RJ, Rootsi S, Marjanovic D, Primorac D, Hadziselimovic R, Vidovic S, Drobnic K, Durmishi N, Torroni A, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Underhill PA, Semino O (2009) Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in Southeast Europe. Eur J Hum Genet 17(6):820–830. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2008.249 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Semino O, Magri C, Benuzzi G, Lin AA, Al-Zahery N, Battaglia V, Maccioni L, Triantaphyllidis C, Shen P, Oefner PJ, Zhivotovsky LA, King R, Torroni A, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS (2004) Origin, diffusion, and differentiation of Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J: inferences on the neolithization of Europe and later migratory events in the Mediterranean area. Am J Hum Genet 74(5):1023–1034. doi: 10.1086/386295 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gršković B, Mršić G (2010) Y chromosome: from evolution to forensics- an overwiev. Acta Med Croatica 64:33–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Primorac D, Marjanović D, Pavao Rudan, Villems R, Underhill P (2011) Croatian genetic heritage: Y chromosome story. Croat Med J 52(3):225–234. doi: 10.3325/cmj.2011.52.225 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Underhill PA, Myres NM, Rootsi S, Metspalu M, Zhivotovsky LA, King RJ, Lin AA, Chow CE, Semino O, Battaglia V, Kutuev I, Järve M, Chaubey G, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Mehdi SQ, Sengupta S, Rogaev EI, Khusnutdinova EK, Pshenichnov A, Balanovsky O, Balanovska E, Jeran N, Augustin DH, Baldovic M, Herrera RJ, Thangaraj K, Singh V, Singh L, Majumder P, Rudan P, Primorac D, Villems R, Kivisild T (2010) Separating the post-Glacial coancestry of European and Asian Y chromosomes within haplogroup R1a. Eur J Hum Genet 18(4):479–484. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2009.194 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Rootsi S, Magri C, Kivisild T, Benuzzi G, Help H, Bermisheva M, Kutuev I, Barac L, Pericic M, Balanovsky O, Pshenichnov A, Dion D, Grobei M, Zhivotovsky LA, Battaglia V, Achilli A, Al-Zahery N, Parik J, King R, Cinnioglu C, Khusnutdinova E, Rudan P, Balanovska E, Scheffrahn W, Simonescu M, Brehm A, Goncalves R, Rosa A, Moisan JP, Chaventre A, Ferak V, Furedi S, Oefner PJ, Shen P, Beckman L, Mikerezi I, Terzic R, Primorac D, Cambon-Thomsen A, Krumina A, Torroni A, Underhill PA, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Villems R, Semino O (2004) Phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup I reveals distinct domains of prehistoric gene flow in Europe. Am J Hum Genet 75(1):128–137. doi: 10.1086/422196 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Semino O, Passarino G, Oefner JP, Lin AA, Arbuzova S, Beckman EL, De Benedictis G, Francalacci P, Kouvatsi A, Limborska S, Marcikic M, Mika A, Primorac D, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill AP (2000) The genetic legacy of paleolithic homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: a Y chromosome perspective. Science 290:1155-1159. doi: 10.1126/science.290.5494.1155

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gordan Mršić
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Branka Gršković
    • 1
    • 2
  • Andro Vrdoljak
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maja Popović
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ivica Valpotić
    • 2
    • 3
  • Šimun Anđelinović
    • 2
    • 4
  • Vlastimil Stenzl
    • 5
  • Edvard Ehler
    • 6
  • Ludvik Urban
    • 7
  • Gordana Lacković
    • 8
  • Peter Underhill
    • 9
  • Dragan Primorac
    • 10
    • 11
    • 12
    • 13
  1. 1.Forensic Science Centre “Ivan Vučetić”Ministry of InteriorZagrebCroatia
  2. 2.University Center for Forensic SciencesUniversity of SplitSplitCroatia
  3. 3.Department of Biology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of ZagrebZagrebCroatia
  4. 4.Department of Pathology and Forensic MedicineSplit University Hospital and School of MedicineSplitCroatia
  5. 5.Department of Forensic GeneticsInstitute of CriminalisticsPragueCzech Republic
  6. 6.Department of Biology and Environmental Studies, Faculty of EducationCharles University in PraguePragueCzech Republic
  7. 7.Faculty of Mathematics and PhysicsCharles University in PraguePragueCzech Republic
  8. 8.Division of Biology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of ZagrebZagrebCroatia
  9. 9.Department of GeneticsStanford University, School of MedicinePalo AltoUSA
  10. 10.Medical SchoolUniversity of SplitSplitCroatia
  11. 11.Medical SchoolUniversity of OsijekOsijekCroatia
  12. 12.Eberly College of SciencePenn State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  13. 13.University of New HavenNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations