Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 39, Issue 5, pp 5339–5348 | Cite as

Molecular cloning and expression analysis of xpd from zebrafish (Danio rerio)



The XPD gene, located in human chromosome 19, encodes one of the two helicase components of transcriptional factor IIH (TFIIH), a ten-subunit, multifunctional complex that is essential for multiple processes, including basal transcription initiation and DNA damage repair [1, 2]. Alterations in XPD resulting in defective TFIIH function are associated with UV-sensitive disorders including Xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne syndrome, and Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) [3, 4]. TTD mice exhibit many symptoms of premature aging, including osteoporosis, kyphosis and osteosclerosis [5]. This fact has triggered our interest in analyzing XPD involvement in bone biology using zebrafish as model organism. Although orthologs of xpd are present in all species analyzed, no specific data on its gene structure, regulation or function exists at this time in any fish system. In this study we isolated the zebrafish cDNA encoding xpd, and examined its spatial-temporal expression during early development as well as its tissue distribution in adult zebrafish. Only one gene was identified in zebrafish and its sequence analysis showed a molecular structure with 23 coding exons similar to other species. The amino acid sequences were also found to be largely conserved among all species analyzed, suggesting function maintenance throughout evolution. Gene expression analysis in different zebrafish tissues by qPCR showed xpd expression in all tissues examined with the highest expression in branchial arches. Analysis of xpd expression in zebrafish embryos showed maternal inheritance and presence of xpd transcripts in all developmental stages analyzed suggesting its implication in early zebrafish larval development.


Xeroderma pigmentosum group-D (XPD) Transcriptional factor IIH (TFIIH) Teleost zebrafish (Danio rerioXeroderma pigmentosum (XP) Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Sciences and MedicineUniversity of AlgarveFaroPortugal
  2. 2.Centre of Marine Sciences (CCMAR)University of AlgarveFaroPortugal

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