Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 39, Issue 2, pp 1895–1901 | Cite as

Impact of DNA repair genes polymorphism (XPD and XRCC1) on the risk of breast cancer in Egyptian female patients

  • Yousry Mostafa Hussien
  • Amal F. Gharib
  • Hanan A. Awad
  • Rehab A. Karam
  • Wael H. Elsawy


The genes involved in DNA repair system play a crucial role in the protection against mutations. It has been hypothesized that functional deficiencies in highly conserved DNA repair processes resulting from polymorphic variation may increase genetic susceptibility to breast cancer (BC). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of genetic polymorphisms in 2 DNA repair genes, XPD (Asp312Asn) and XRCC1 (A399G), with BC susceptibility. We further investigated the potential combined effect of these DNA repair variants on BC risk. Both XPD (xeroderma pigmentosum group D) and XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1) polymorphisms were characterized in 100 BC Egyptian females and 100 healthy women who had no history of any malignancy by amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) method and PCR with confronting two-pair primers (PCR-CTPP), using DNA from peripheral blood in a case control study. Our results revealed that the frequencies of AA genotype of XPD codon 312 polymorphism were significantly higher in the BC patients than in the normal individuals (P ≤ 0.003), and did not observe any association between the XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism and risk of developing BC. Also, no association between both XPD Asp312Asn and XRCC1 A399G polymorphisms and the clinical characteristics of disease. Finally, the combination of AA(XPD) + AG(XRCC1) were significantly associated with BC risk. Our results suggested that, XPD gene is an important candidate gene for susceptibility to BC. Also, gene–gene interaction between XPD(AA) + XRCC1(AG) polymorphism may be associated with increased risk of BC in Egyptian women.


Nucleotide excision repair Base excision repair Breast cancer XPD XRCC1 



This study was funded with the support of academic research in Zagazig University Projects, Zagazig University. Postgraduate and Research Affairs.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yousry Mostafa Hussien
    • 1
  • Amal F. Gharib
    • 1
  • Hanan A. Awad
    • 1
  • Rehab A. Karam
    • 1
  • Wael H. Elsawy
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of MedicineZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Oncology, Faculty of MedicineZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt

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