Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 39, Issue 2, pp 1163–1172

Antiviral role of toll-like receptors and cytokines against the new 2009 H1N1 virus infection



People are generally susceptible to the 2009 new mutate of H1N1 influenza due to lack of appropriate immunity. Influenza H1N1 2009 infection triggers a massive inflammatory response that contributes to fever, lung impairment or other tissue damage, eventually leading to death. Infection with pathogenic influenza virus H1N1 induces severe pulmonary immune pathology. To date, more than 10,000 cases worldwide have died of the disease. It still has strong infectious ability although the mortality of influenza isn’t currently high. Therefore, to explore the pathogenesis of H1N1 influenza can help with the disease prevention, diagnosis and provide a theoretical basis and the new ideas of treatment. Laboratory confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 were enrolled to collect general information on pre-clinical, clinical and laboratory data for analysis. Blood samples were obtained from patients with H1N1, healthy volunteers and patients with bacterial pneumonia. Serum were separated and collected. RT–PCR and ELISA methods were applied to detect the different expression of TLRs and cytokines. The young, pregnant and postpartum women and infant are highly susceptible to influenza H1N1 2009 infection; degree of susceptibility is not associated with BMI. Biochemical changes can be seen in the patients with influenza H1N1 2009 infection: ALT, AST, CK, LDH increased in varying degrees. TLR2, TLR3, TLR9 expression increased in the patients with influenza H1N1 2009 infection; no obvious changes of TLR4, TLR7, TLR8 can be detected. In pregnant and postpartum women group, only TLR9 expression increased. The expression of IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α in the patients with influenza H1N1 2009 infection was significantly increased; while IL-10 expression decreased and IL-4 expression did not change. H1N1 influenza-infected pregnant and postpartum women group, only IL-2 and TNF-α expression expression increased, other cytokines decreased or didn’t change. TLR2, TLR3, TLR9 are the major members of TLR family in the recognition of the novel H1N1 virus to start the innate immune response and adaptive immune responses. TLR9 may be the key receptor among pattern recognized receptors to recognize and bind to H1N1 virus. Cellular immune responses induced by Th1 may participate in modulating the influenza H1N1 2009.


H1N1 Toll-like receptor Cytokine Immune Th1 


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ImmunologyHarbin Medical UniversityHarbinChina
  2. 2.Department of RespiratoryThe Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical UniversityHarbinPeople’s Republic of China

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