CTLA-4 exon 1 +49 polymorphism alone and in a haplotype with −318 promoter polymorphism may confer susceptibility to chronic HBV infection in Chinese Han patients
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Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) plays a pivotal role in regulating T cell activation, which is believably critical for the outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The expression and function of CTLA-4 may be affected by gene polymorphisms. This study investigated the influence of CTLA-4 polymorphisms on disease susceptibility in Chinese Han patients with chronic HBV infection. CTLA-4 +49A/G and −318C/T polymorphisms were evaluated by DNA amplification with polymerase chain reaction followed by the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The patients with chronic HBV infection had higher frequencies of genotype AA and allele A of CTLA-4 +49A/G polymorphism. The haplotype +49A−318C was significantly over-represented (P < 0.001) and haplotype +49G−318C under-represented (P = 0.006) in the patients. The +49GG genotype was more frequent (P = 0.009) and +49A allele was less frequent in patients with lower ALT levels (P = 0.012) in HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B. It is indicated that CTLA-4 +49A/G polymorphism alone and in a haplotype with −318C allele may confer susceptibility to chronic HBV infection in Chinese Han patients.