Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 38, Issue 4, pp 2263–2271 | Cite as

HLA genes in Amerindian immigrants to Madrid (Spain): epidemiology and a virtual transplantation waiting list

Amerindians in Madrid (Spain)
  • Carlos Parga-Lozano
  • Diego Rey-Medrano
  • Pablo Gomez-Prieto
  • Cristina Areces
  • Juan Moscoso
  • Sedeka Abd-El-Fatah-Khalil
  • Enrique Moreno
  • Antonio Arnaiz-Villena


Amerindians immigrated to Madrid (Spain) region are about 10% of the present day population. Amerindians are believed to be the first American inhabitants, before Na-Dene speakers, Aleuts and Eskimo. They may initially have arrived to America from Siberia and also from other parts of Pacific Sea (South Asia, Polynesia and Australia). Nowadays, they populate America from Canada to Tierra del Fuego (South America tip South). Most Amerindian immigrants to Madrid have come from Andean Countries in the last 10 years (mainly Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Colombia). They show an HLA profile with “quasi-specific alleles”, which makes them different to the rest of the World. In the present work, we have aimed to determine the immigrants HLA profile in order to establish a virtual transplantation waiting list which may be useful for their therapeutic transplants, particularly bone marrow transplantation. This would be carried out together with Amerindian immigrants to other parts of Spain and with their own countries in order to build up transplantation programs. Specific epidemiology programs on HLA linked disease will also be established. Immigrant volunteer unrelated blood donors contributed to the present study. HLA typing was performed by standard methods and their HLA profile obtained and obtained and compared with 15,108 HLA chromosomes from the rest of the World, including Spaniards. The immigrants showed a typical Amerindian profile similar to isolated Amerindian ethnic groups and altogether different to other World inhabitants (including Spaniards). These are the first bases to set up transplantation and epidemiology studies in collaboration with their original population in America. Finally, the HLA profile found in these Amerindians does not indicate their American specific original area, as it is expected from previous studies, i.e.: they do not relate more with Andean than with other Amerindians in Neighbour Joining dendrograms or correspondence analyses.


Amerindian immigrants Amerindian origins Epidemiology HLA Transplantation 



This work was supported in part by grants from the Spanish Ministry of Health (FISS PI051039 and PI080838), Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs (A/9134/07 and A/17727/08) and three different Mutua Madrileña Automovilista grants.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos Parga-Lozano
    • 1
  • Diego Rey-Medrano
    • 1
  • Pablo Gomez-Prieto
    • 1
  • Cristina Areces
    • 1
  • Juan Moscoso
    • 1
  • Sedeka Abd-El-Fatah-Khalil
    • 2
  • Enrique Moreno
    • 3
  • Antonio Arnaiz-Villena
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Immunology, Facultad de MedicinaUniversity Complutense, Universidad ComplutenseMadridSpain
  2. 2.Department of HaematologyThe Madrid Regional Blood CenterMadridSpain
  3. 3.Department of Hepatic SurgeryHospital 12 de OctubreMadridSpain

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